Boletim de Indústria Animal http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia <p align="center"><img src="/bia/public/site/images/fprado/download2.jpg" alt=""></p> <p align="justify"><span style="font-size: medium; font-family: 'book antiqua';">O Boletim de Indústria Animal-BIA é uma revista científica de produção animal e áreas afins, de publicação contínua de acesso livre, on-line, editado pelo Instituto de Zootecnia, da Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de São Paulo. O BIA tem por objetivo publicar artigos científicos originais em português e inglês, que contribuam para o desenvolvimento da produção animal, nas áreas de Aquicultura, Etologia e Ambiência, Forragicultura e Pastagens, Genética, Melhoramento Animal, Métodos Quantitativos e Economia, Nutrição Animal, Qualidade de Produtos de Origem Animal, Reprodução Animal, Sanidade Animal, e Sistemas de Produção e Agronegócios. Os manuscritos enviados ao Boletim de Indústria Animal devem ser inéditos e não podem ser publicados ou submetidos à publicação em outro meio de divulgação simultaneamente, com exceção de anais de congresso. O BIA publica artigos científicos. O conteúdo dos manuscritos submetidos à publicação no BIA é de responsabilidade exclusiva de seu(s) autor(es)</span><strong style="font-size: medium; font-family: 'book antiqua';"><em>.</em></strong></p> pt-BR <p>Os autores não serão remunerados pela publicação de trabalhos, pois devem abrir mão de seus direitos autorais em favor deste periódico. Por outro lado, os autores ficam autorizados a publicar seus artigos, simultaneamente, em repositórios da instituição de sua origem, desde que citada a fonte da publicação original seja Boletim de Indústria Animal. A revista se reserva o direito de efetuar, nos originais, alterações de ordem normativa, ortográfica e gramatical, com vistas a manter o padrão culto da língua e a credibilidade do veículo. Respeitará, no entanto, o estilo de escrever dos autores. Alterações, correções ou sugestões de ordem conceitual serão encaminhadas aos autores, quando necessário. Nesses casos, os artigos, depois de adequados, deverão ser submetidos a nova apreciação. As opiniões emitidas pelos autores dos artigos são de sua exclusiva responsabilidade. Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob a Licença Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY-NC). A condição BY implica que os licenciados podem copiar, distribuir, exibir e executar a obra e fazer trabalhos derivados com base em que só se dão o autor ou licenciante os créditos na forma especificada por estes. A cláusula NC significa que os licenciados podem copiar, distribuir, exibir e executar a obra e fazer trabalhos derivados com base apenas para fins não comerciais.</p> iz.editor@sp.gov.br (Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa) teixeira@sp.gov.br (Sebastião Teixeira) Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Action of Melaleuca and Cinnamon Essential Oils In Vitro for the Control of Bovine Mastitis http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1883 <p>Mastitis is a disease that mostly affects dairy cattle, harming animal welfare and increasing production costs due to the necessary treatment and loss of milk quality. It is mainly caused by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, which as one of the most difficult microorganisms to eliminate, with high potential for contagion. One of the main problems is the resistance of these bacterial strains due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. For this reason, alternative and sustainable methods have been sought, such as the use of essential oils (EOs) as a form of treating bovine mastitis. The objective of this study was to select different essential oils and evaluate their antibacterial activity <em>in vitro</em> against strains of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The experiment was carried out in the Chemistry Laboratory of IFES – Alegre Campus. Two different essential oils were used: melaleuca (<em>Melaleuca alternifolia</em>) and cinnamon (<em>Cinnamomum sp</em>.). The characterization of the EOs was performed by gas chromatography to verify the main compounds. A standardized strain of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, (ATCC 25923) was used to observe the antibacterial activity. The bacterial death was evaluated by disc diffusion. After inoculation of the bacterial strains on Petri dishes, sterile filter paper discs with 6 mm diameter were placed on the medium impregnated with 1100 µg of each EO. After incubation for 24 h at 37±1ºC, thye inhibition halos around the discs were measured. As positive control, we used the antibiotic cefoxitin (CFO) at 30 µg. The discs were positioned on plates with Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). In the statistical analysis, a completely randomized design was used, in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, consisting of tea tree and eucalyptus essential oils, on the <em>S. aureus</em> strain, with 3 repetitions. The final result, determined by the arithmetic mean of the inhibition halos (mm), was subjected to analysis of variance (p&lt;0.01) and SNK test (p&lt;0.05), using PROC GLM. The melaleuca essential oil contained the predominant compounds terpinene-4-ol, with 48.51%, while the majority compound of the cinnamon EO was eugenol, with 65.42%. The effect of treatments on <em>S. aureus</em> bacteria showed that the antibiotic CFO (30 µg disc<sup>-1</sup>) had the highest sensitivity, with a halo value of 21.45 ± 1.32 mm, followed by the cinnamon essential oil, with a halo value of 16.56 ± 2.84 mm, while in contrast, the melaleuca EO had a halo value of 11.80 ± 2.60 mm. We concluded that cinnamon and melaleuca essential oils present potential as sources of new antibacterial compounds for the control of bovine mastitis.</p> Ida Rúbia Machado Moulin, Jessica Delesposte Destefani, Aparecida de Fátima Madella-Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1883 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Body Weight Gain in Gir Dairy Calves Submitted to Different Nutritional and Welfare Treatments http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1884 <p>This study evaluated different dietary (conventional and optimized feeding) and welfare (conventional and tactile stimulation/brushing) treatments on body weight gain in Gir dairy calves from birth to 140 days old. The experiment was carried out from October 2021 to April 2022 at the experimental farm of &nbsp;Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Uberaba, MG, with 40 calves born from IVF,in October (GN1) and December (GN2), distributed among the treatments by order of birth, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (food management x animal welfare), with the following treatments: conventional feeding and conventional welfare management (MC+BC); conventional feeding and optimized welfare management (MC+BO); optimized feeding and conventional welfare management (MO+BC); and optimized feeding and optimized welfare management (MO+BO). From birth to 90 days of age, all calves were taken to the milking parlor in the morning and in the afternoon, and a teat/quarter was reserved for suckling for both feeding treatments. However, for optimized management (MO), the calves received an additional amount of daily milk (4 L) until 60 days and from day 61 to 90 day (2 L), offered in bottles. At 90 days of age, the calves were weaned. The calves of the optimized welfare (BO) treatment received tactile stimulation from birth to 60 days of age. Tactile stimulation consisted of massages performed by the handler on the animal's entire body, in the morning and in the afternoon, for 1 minute. The body weights of the animals were measured using a digital scale, at 0 (PN), 30, 60, 90, 120 and 140 days of age, always in the morning before offering milk or solid feed. Analysis of variance for birth weight (PN) and weight gain from 30 to 140 days of age (GP30, GP60, GP90, GP120 and GP140) were performed using linear models, including treatment, birth group (GN) class effects and the interaction between these effects. The estimated means were compared using the Tukey test at the 5% level. There was no significant interaction effect of all analyzed traits. For PN and GP30, there was no statistical difference of treatment and GN effects (P&gt;0.05). The estimated means for PN were 26.8 ± 0.89 Kg; 25.8 ± 0.85 Kg; 26.4 ± 0.89 Kg; 25.3 ± 0.93 Kg, for the treatments MC+BC, MC+BO, MO+BC and MO+BO, respectively. There was no effect of GN for the traits GP60, GP90, GP120 and GP140, but there was a treatment effect. The estimated averages for GP60 were 480 ± 0.03 g, 440 ± 0.03 g, 350 ± 0.03 g and 350 ± 0.03 g, while for GP90 they were 500 ± 0.03 g, 480 ± 0.03 g, 420 ± 0.03 g and 380 ± 0.03 g, for GP120 they were 530 ± 0.02 g, 520 ± 0.02 g, 480 ± 0.02 g and 420 ± 0.02 g, and for GP140 they were 540 ± 0.02 g, 530 ± 0.02 g, 520 ± 0.02 g and 430 ± 0.02 g, respectively, for the treatments MO + BO, MO + BC, MC + BC and MC + BO. The tactile stimulation did not influence the body weight gain of the calves, as already observed by other authors. Ease of handling and behavioral traits were not analyzed in the present study. The optimized feeding provided greater gains during the suckling period and after the calves were weaned. Since animals of the Gir breed have slow growth and the breeding phase is an important period for the milk production system, studies elucidating the consumption of breast milk, as well as the consumption of dry matter in this period are necessary to understand the potential of animal body development. We concluded that the optimized feeding management provided better body weight gains of the animals and suggest they be adopted by farmers.</p> Rayanne Casabona Castanheira, Márcia Ingrid de Paiva, Gabriella Freire Adão, Herbert Valério Filho, Edilane Aparecida da Silva, Márcia Saladini Vieira Salles, Lenira El Faro Zadra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1884 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils for Application in Bovine Mastitis Control http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1887 <p>Bovine mastitis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects dairy herds, leading to severe economic losses to producers. Given this scenario, there is a need to find alternative methods that are effective and safe for animal and human health. The use of natural compounds derived from plants is an alternative for the treatment of mastitis in dairy cows. We evaluated the <em>in vitro</em> antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EO) of cinnamon (<em>Cinnamomum sp.</em>), melaleuca (<em>Melaleuca alternifolia</em>) and oregano (<em>Origanum vulgare</em>) against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(ATCC 25923), aiming at future application for the control of bovine mastitis. The tests were performed in triplicate for the fixed concentration of 5 mg (50000µg disc<sup>-1</sup>) of EO. The evaluation was done by the disk diffusion method, in which trypticase soy broth (TSB) medium was inoculated with the microorganism <em>S. aureus</em> at 10<sup>8</sup> UFC mL<sup>-1 </sup>by pouring the medium into sterile Petri dishes with 140 mm diameter. After inoculation, sterile filter paper discs with 6 mm diameter impregnated with 5 mg of each EO were placed on the medium. After 24 h incubation at 37±1 ºC, the inhibition halos around the discs were measured. In the statistical analysis, a completely randomized design was used, in a 2 x 3, factorial scheme consisting of tea tree and eucalyptus essential oils on <em>S. aureus strains</em>, with 3 repetitions. The final results, determined by the arithmetic mean of the inhibition halos (mm), were submitted to analysis of variance (p&lt;0.01) and the SNK test (p&lt;0.05), using PROC GLM. The effect of the 5 mg concentration of oregano EO showed higher sensitivity against melaleuca EO (10.54 mm) and cinnamon EO (14.01 mm), presenting a halo of 19.09 mm. The results demonstrated that oregano essential oil has potential antibacterial activities and showed satisfactory results at a small concentration. Thus, oregano OE showed excellent action against bacterial growth. However, there is a need for further studies to evaluate its potential against standard strains such as ATCC 25923.</p> Ida Rúbia Machado Moulin, Isabella da Costa Teixeira, Ueldiane Quintiliano Lins, Aparecida de Fátima Madella-Oliveira, Tercio da Silva de Souza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1887 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Correlation Of Infrared Thermography With Performance Measures Of Dorper Lambs http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1889 <p>The development of new tools for animal production studies has been increasing at a fast pace in the areas of nutrition and well-being. Infrared thermography is a non-invasive technique with accessibility and practicality, which can be used to obtain results from the selection of animals in intensified sheep farming. The experiment was carried out at the Instituto de Zootecnia de Nova Odessa, with the objective of correlating the average temperatures of different regions of the body through infrared thermography with measures of consumption in a food efficiency test. We evaluated 26 male Dorper lambs, weaned, not castrated and with average initial weight of 28.9 ± 3.2 kg. Thermographic images were obtained from each animal at a fixed distance of 60 centimeters (cm), at the following sites: eyeball (TMEDOC), snout (TMEDFOC), distal region of the hind limb (hoof) (TMEDC), testis (TMEDT) and rumen (TMEDRUM), with the aid of a FLIR E96 thermographic camera, calibrated to emissivity of 0.95, with subsequent analysis and adjustment using the FLIR Thermal Studio software. In each image, a marker with localized average temperature was used, with the shape of an ellipse for all regions. Subsequently, the animals were confined in a shed with an Intergado® System with 9 automated troughs to measure individual food consumption for 45 days, after adaptation to food and the environment for 15 days. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated using the average temperature of the body sites, initial age and consumption (SAS). The averages obtained for the eye, snout, hoof, testis and rumen temperatures were 36.37 ºC ± 0.76 ºC, 30.26 ºC ± 4.75 ºC, 24.69 ºC ± 4.14 ºC, 30.06 ºC ± 1.69 and 30.71 ºC ± 1.91, respectively. The averages of initial age (IDINIC) and consumption (CONS) were 123.30 d ± 16.30 d and 1.15 kg ± 0.26 kg, respectively. TMEDRUM presented a coefficient of 0.52 with IDINIC (P&amp;lt;0.05), while. TMEDFOC showed a medium-high and positive correlation (r = 0.51) with consumption (P&amp;lt;0.05). TMEDOC, TMEDC and TMEDT showed no significant correlations with any of the characteristics evaluated. The correlations obtained from the average temperatures in the snout and rumen regions of the animals with the initial age and consumption, respectively, indicated that these sites can be selected to capture and analyze thermographic images in Dorper lambs, in studies related to animal feeding, corroborating research results in ruminant nutrition.</p> Rafael Franco Bernardi, Marcelo Moretin Vieira, Nathalya Sanchez, Mayara Isaias Vargas, Natana Mendes Marques, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1889 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Characterization of Compost Barn Systems in Dairy Farms in Caparaó Capixaba http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1890 <p>Compost barn (CB) systems provide comfort and well-being to animals that are confined there, directly influencing their productivity. In this type of system, the animals are kept in a shed, with a straw bed, which is turned over several times a day to promote composting. Animals kept in this system are better able to express their genetic potential, since there is a reduction in heat stress and energy expenditure in the search for food. The objectives of this work were to characterize the milk producing units (MPU) that use the CB production system in two municipalities in the Caparaó region of the state of Espírito Santo, and to identify the benefits and satisfaction of producers with the adoption of the system. Visits were made to six MPUs that adopt the CB system in the municipalities of Guaçuí and Dores do Rio Preto in February 2022, to collect technical information through the application of a questionnaire. The longest time of adoption of the CB system among the properties visited was 5 years and the most recent was less than 1 year. &nbsp;Two of them are small properties (up to 80 hectares) and the others are medium properties with up to 150 hectares.. The others were classified as medium properties. When asked about the decision to adopt CB, the criterion mentioned most was to avoid clay (5), followed by mastitis control (4), labor savings (3) and less heat stress (3). Only half of the producers said they had adopted system with the elaboration of a project, but all of them reported having visited other properties to learn how the system works beforehand. The average size of the herd on the properties visited was 41.6 head. The animals remained full-time in the CB on five of the farms (83%), while on the other farm the animals spent the night in the pasture. In all the properties visited, the animal category was lactating cows. The average area of the barns was 555 m², the smallest with 120 m² and the largest with 1,560 m². The smallest area occupied per animal was 10.7 m²/head and the largest was 20 m²/head. As for the roof, in 66.7% of the properties it was made of zinc sheeting and in 33.3% of fiber cement tiles, irrespective of the use of louvers. The average height of the bed was 53 cm and the most used material was sawdust, in all of the properties. In one of them, coffee straw was also used together with sawdust. The implement most used to turn the bed was a tractor (66.7%) and the turning in 83.3% of the properties was done twice a day. In 66.7% of the properties, the litter was turned during milking. In all of the farms, the milking parlor was attached to the CB. Regarding milk production, 80% of the producers had an improvement in volume and quality of milk, thus demonstrating good results. However, one of the interviewed producers reported serious problems with mastitis when first starting to use the installation, since he did not have the necessary knowledge for the proper management of the litter, which caused great losses in the production and death of animals. The benefits of the system were the possibility of solving the environmental liabilities generated by the large volume of manure that is produced by the cows and also the reduction of the cost of fertilization of the corn crop with the use of litter. In addition, there was improvement in the handling of animals; cleaning around the barn; ease of measurement of heat; and reduction of tick incidence, positively impacting milk production costs. There was improvement in the handling of animals; cleaning around the shed; ease in the observation of heat; and reduction of tick incidence positively impacting milk production costs.</p> Lorena Vidaurre Ribeiro, Priscila de Oliveira Nascimento, Silvia Aline Bérgamo Xavier ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1890 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Application of the Welfare Quality® Protocol in Dairy Cattle to Determine the Degree of Animal Welfare http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1891 <p>The analysis of animal welfare has advanced considerably, based on heightened public concern about the treatment of livestock. Consumers increasingly demand products obtained through good animal treatment and environmental preservation practices. The objective of this work was to evaluate the welfare parameters of dairy cattle according to the Welfare Quality® protocol. The study was carried out in the dairy cattle sector of the Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, Alegre Campus, during milking in the afternoon, for three consecutive days during the months from December 2020 to March 2021. A total of 70 lactating cows were observed with application of the Welfare Quality welfare protocol, which was adapted for cows during milking. The method consisted of direct and continuous observation of the animals during handling, following the normal routine in the pen. The principles of the Welfare Quality protocol were used to determine the satisfaction of the tenets good food, good health, good accommodation and appropriate behavior. These four principles have detailed criteria for carrying out the analyses, namely: absence of prolonged hunger, absence of prolonged thirst, absence of injuries, absence of diseases, comfort for rest, ease of movement, expression of other behaviors, and good human-animal interaction. Data were first analyzed by computing descriptive statistics using the FREQ and MEANS procedures. The following results were observed: The criterion of absence of prolonged hunger was evaluated by the body score of the cows, resulting in 16.66% fat cows; 47.08% intermediate cows and 36.25% lean cows. The criterion absence of prolonged thirst was determined by the presence of drinking fountains/troughs in all the places where the animals remained. In the criterion absence of injuries, only 11.7% of the cows were lame and 27.5% had skin lesions. The criterion absence of diseases presented 14% of 1840 teats with a positive result for clinical mastitis, and 1372 teats (31.71%) were reactive to the California Mastitis Test (CMT) for subclinical mastitis, with 13.48% suffering the most severe form of subclinical mastitis with the formation of a thick gel. The rest comfort criterion resulted in 15.88 m² of space for each animal from the waiting area to the milking parlor, and the animals' cleanliness score resulted in 2.9% very clean cows, 46.72% clean cows, 24.08% dirty cows and 26.3% very dirty cows. The criterion expression of other behaviors was evaluated as appropriate behavior in milking, with 52.3% of the cows remaining calm, and 51.35% did not require the use of rope to secure the limbs, 57.43% did not react to placement of the teat cups, 2.53% removed the teat cups, and 62% remained calm when leaving the milking parlor. For the criterion good human-animal interaction, 46.94% of the cows were considered angry or very angry; 43.24% allowed human approach, but they were not touched, and thus were considered tame cows; 10.82% were touched and considered very tame cows. We concluded that the welfare parameters of dairy cattle based on the Welfare Quality protocol allowed us to detect some critical points that affect welfare such as the use of oxytocin and the hygiene score. However, it was possible to note some positive aspects with a good animal welfare, related to the parameters of good nutrition and good health.</p> Ida Rúbia Machado Moulin, Luainni de Souza Charpinel, Aparecida de Fátima Madella-Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1891 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Gross energy content in intensively managed pastures andsilvopastoral systems in southeast Brazil determined by simulated forage http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1832 <p>Due to seasonality, the main factor responsible for low productivity of livestock is the lack of forage nutritional quality in some months of the year. This study evaluated the effects of intensification and integration in animal production systems on the gross energy (GE) content of simulated forage from September 2019 to September 2020 at Embrapa Southeast Livestock, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Treatments, with two replicates, were: 1) intensively managed and irrigated <em>Megathyrsus maximus</em> cv. Tanzânia pasture with a high stocking rate, overseeded in the dry season with oats (<em>Avena byzantina</em>) and annual ryegrass (<em>Lolium multiflorum</em>) (IHS); 2) intensively managed rainfed <em>M. maximus</em> cv. Tanzânia pasture with a high stocking rate (RHS); 3) intensively managed rainfed pasture with a mix of <em>Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk and <em>Urochloa brizantha</em> cv. Marandu pasture with a moderate stocking rate (RMS); 4) intensively managed silvopastoral system with <em>U. decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk pasture and Brazilian native trees (345 trees ha<sup>-1</sup>), with a moderate stocking rate (LFS); and 5) extensively managed degraded pasture with a mix of <em>U. brizantha</em> cv. Marandu and <em>U. decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk with a low stocking rate (DP). All pastures were grazed by Nellore steers and submitted to stocking rate adjustments using the "put and take" technique. Stocking was continuous in DP and rotational in IHS, RHS, RMS, and LFS, with stocking cycles of 36 days. All pastures except DP were corrected with P, K, S and micronutrients. Pastures in the IHS and RHS systems were fertilized with 400 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>, and RMS and LFS with 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>, applied during the rainy season. The IHS system was fertilized with 200 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup> during the dry season. Two forage subsamples of all treatments were hand plucked for three consecutive days in each middle season of the year, collected considering the grazing behavior of the animals. Samples were dried in an oven (65 ºC - 72 h), ground to 1 mm in a Wiley mill and subsequently analyzed for GE in a calorimeter. The statistical model considered treatments, seasons and the treatment*season interaction as fixed effects (n = 40) and means were submitted to analysis of variance and comparison by the Fisher test at 5%, using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. Significant treatment*season interaction was observed (P=0.0044). In the spring, summer and autumn seasons, higher GE values were found in the treatments with <em>Urochloa</em> spp (LFS, RMS and DP) when compared with those with <em>M. maximus</em> cv. Tanzânia (RHS and IHS) (P&lt;0.05): LFS (4.44 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), RMS (4.34 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) and DP (4.33 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), followed by RHS (4.06 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) and IHS (4.02 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) in spring; RMS and LFS (with 4.27 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup> each) and DP (4.23 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), followed by IHS (3.96 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) and RHS (3.93 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) in summer; LFS (4.16 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), RMS (4.15 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) and DP (4.09 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), followed by IHS (3.90 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) and RHS (3.86 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>) in autumn. During the winter, in comparison with the RHS system (3.73 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), higher GE values were found in treatments with <em>Urochloa spp.</em> pastures (LFS 4.15 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>; RMS 4.13 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>; and DP 4.07 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), and in the IHS treatment (4.12 mcal kg<sup>-1</sup>), possibly due to the overseeding with cool-season forages. These results indicate that treatments with <em>Urochloa </em>spp. were able to maintain high values of GE during all seasons, except for IHS in the winter, while treatments with <em>M. maximus</em> cv. Tanzânia presented lower GE values, regardless of the intensification managements. The lignification process, the reduction in the proportion of leaves and the selective behavior of the animals may have affected the GE content during the seasons, and the overseeding with cool-season forages in the IHS treatment contributed to obtain higher GE values.</p> Rolando Pasquini Neto, Althieres José Furtado, Clara Moura Costaridis Diavolemenos, Adibe Luiz Abdala Filho, Flávio Perna Júnior, Patrícia Perondi Anchão Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1832 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effect of Mixed Pasture of Macrotyloma Axillare and Urochloa Brizantha on Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production in Cattle http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1833 <p>Mixed pastures are grazing areas with more than one plant species at the same time, improving the sustainability of production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the intercropping between the legume Macrotyloma and Marandu grass on production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) through the <em>ex situ</em> technique of ruminal fermentation. The study was carried out at Instituto de Zootecnia (Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, Brazil). The experiment followed the guidelines established in accordance with the ethical principles of animal experimentation of the Commission on Ethical Use of Animals of Instituto de Zootecnia (CEUA/APTA/IZ; no. 291-19). Four ruminally cannulated nulliparous Jersey heifers (465.12 kg ± 33.62 kg) in continuous stocking were evaluated. The experimental period was 25 days (12 days of adaptation to the systems, 12 days of dry matter intake (DMI) assessment and one day of <em>ex situ</em> collection) in November 2020 (spring in Brazil). The experiment had in a completely randomized block design. To estimate forage intake, titanium dioxide powder was used as an external indicator of fecal production, and indigestible neutral detergent fiber was the internal indicator. The <em>ex situ</em> technique consisted of collecting rumen samples in flasks, which were incubated in a thermostatic bath to simulate the rumen conditions for 30 minutes. The rumen content was measured during the day at 6 a.m., 10 a.m., 2 p.m. and 6 p.m. (BRT). The experimental treatments were grass (G): exclusive pasture of <em>Urochloa brizantha</em> cv. Marandu and grass + legume (GL): mixed pasture with <em>Urochloa brizantha</em> cv. Marandu and the legume <em>Macrotyloma axillare</em> (E. Mey. Verd, accession NO 279). The chemical characterizations of the forage were: G (DM = 91.63%; CP = 12.11%; ASH = 8.81%; NDF = 59.60% and ADF = 32.10%) and GL (DM = 91.54%; CP = 16.10%; ASH = 9.82%; NDF = 60.44% and ADF = 29.35%). The total forage mass: G = 4329.28kg ha<sup>1</sup> and GL = 4733.90kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The proportion of botanical components in the forage was: G (grass = 88.80% and dead material = 11.20%) and GL (grass = 62.17%, legume = 25.87% and dead material = 12.87%). Data were analyzed according to PROC MIXED (SAS 9.4). The results obtained were submitted to analysis of variance and submitted to the F-test at 5% probability. The DMI forage was G = 6.10 kg.day<sup>-1</sup> and GL = 9.11 kg.day<sup>-1</sup>; SEM = 0.76 <em>P</em>= 0.10 and the DMI in relation to live body weight was G = 1.37% and GL = 2.11%; SEM = 0.26 <em>P</em>= 0.18). The mixed pasture treatment GL had a higher production of acetic acid (G = 1.99 mol/kg.day<sup>-1</sup> and GL = 4.09 mol/kg.day<sup>-1</sup>; SEM = 0.31 <em>P</em>= 0.04), propionic acid (G = 0.48 mol/kg.day<sup>-1</sup> and GL = 1.32 mol/kg.day; SEM = 0. 11 <em>P</em>= 0.03), butyric acid (G = 0.45 mol/kg.day<sup>-1</sup> and GL = 1.17 mol/kg.day<sup>-1</sup>; SEM = 0.08 <em>P</em>= 0.02). The mixed pasture decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (G = 4.13 mol/kg.day<sup>-1</sup> and GL = 3.11 mol/kg.day<sup>-1</sup>; SEM = 0.16 <em>P</em>= 0.04). The use of the <em>ex situ</em> technique generated a large amount of information for SCFA production. The mixed pasture of the legume Macrotyloma and the Marandu grass increased the production of all SCFAs. We concluded that Macrotyloma has potential for use as a feed for ruminants.</p> Stela S. Zamboin, Gabriela B. Oliveira, Thais S. Galvin, Gustavo Mandonça, Bruna Z. Uzan, Waldssimiler T. Mattos, Luciana Gerdes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1833 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Evaluation of the Proportion of Botanical and Morphological Components in Forage of Exclusive and Intercropped Grazing Systems http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1834 <p>Pasture management that favors ecosystem renewal results from the best botanical proportion of forage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the forage botanical component proportions in macrotiloma (legume) and marandu grass intercropped pasture in comparison with exclusive marandu grass pasture, with or without protein supplementation, using cattle in continuous stocking. The study was carried out at the instituto de zootecnia (nova odessa, sp). Twelve jersey cows (372.83±44.62 kg) were used. Data collection was carried out during periods of 45 in each season, between spring 2019 and winter 2021. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks, with three treatments and two replications. The experimental treatments were: grass (g): exclusive pasture of urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu; grass + protein supplementation (gp): exclusive pasture of urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu with protein supplementation; and grass + legume (gl): pasture intercropped with urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu and macrotyloma axillare (e. Mey. Verd accession no 279). Forage mass was measured on the 1st, 23rd and 45th days of each experimental period. Forage samples were composed of the representative mass collected at ground level using a gasoline back-mounted brushcutter with a hedge trimmer, at three points, to determined average forage canopy height. The botanical composition was calculated as a percentage of pasture forage mass using the dry weight of the botanical components. Statistical analyses were performed using the sas 9.4 mixed procedure. The data were evaluated by the lsd test and a significant effect was considered when p ≤ 0.05, where the seasons were considered repeated measures in time. The treatments showed statistical difference for dead material proportion (g = 46.37% a, gp = 46.47 % b and gl = 42.11 %b; p &lt; 0.04). Legume proportion was higher in summer (spring = 9.77%b, summer = 30.34%a, autumn = 15.26%b and winter = 5.13%b; p &lt;0.004) and dead material proportion was higher in winter (spring = 48.54%b, summer = 14.23%c, autumn = 38.61%b and winter = 78.55%b; p&lt;0.0001). The proportion of macrotyloma axillare leaves in the forage canopy in this study was 16.60% in summer, 4.87% in spring, 4.48% in autumn and 2.51% in winter, and branches/stalks represented 14.74%a in summer, 4.90 %b in spring, 10.77%b in autumn, and 2.61%b in winter. It can be concluded that botanical maintenance with macrotyloma axillare has potential to be used intercropped with marandu grass, contributing to the system sustainability.</p> Stela S. Zamboin, Gabriela B. Oliveira, Marcelo M. Vieira, Mayne Sarti, Waldssimiler T. Mattos, Paulo H.M. Rodrigues, Luciana Gerdes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1834 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Forage Mass and Leaf Area Index in Multispecies Pastures Under Continuous Stocking http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1835 <p>The association of different species in a pasture ecosystem is a challenge for grazing management, where the leaf area index (LAI) is the end result of interactions between plant-animal-environment. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of grazing management strategies (GMS) considering forage canopy heights on forage mass production (FM) and LAI in multispecies pastures. The experiment was conducted at the Instituto of Zootecnia in Nova Odess, SP in autumn (June 2021) and spring (December 2021). Multispecies pastures were composed of aruana grass (<em>Megathyrsus maximum cv. Aruana</em>) and a mix of forage legumes: calopo (<em>Calopogonium mucunoides</em>), macrotyloma (<em>Macrotyloma axillare)</em> and stylo (<em>Stylosanthes macrocephala+ Stylosanthes capitata</em>). The study was conducted in four randomized blocks with four treatments (grazing management strategies – GMS: 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm canopy heights) and four replications (500 m²/each paddock), with continuous stocking of sheep. For the FM evaluation, the forage was cut at soil level in three 0.25 m² areas, representative of the average paddock height. The samples were weighed, homogenized and divided into two subsamples for component separation and total dry matter quantification after drying in a forced-air oven at 65 °C for 72 hours. The leaf area (cm²) was determined using a LI-COR model 3100 measuring device to calculate the total covered soil area (m²) and to find the LAI values for aruana grass (LAIaruana), legumes (LAILeg) and aruana grass + legumes (LAITotal). Analysis of variance was performed by SAS software using proc MIXED. The Tukey test was applied for comparison of means (P&lt;0.05). There was a significant effect for GMS and season in FM (P&lt;0.0001; P=0.00061). The highest FM value found was for 60 cm GMS, with 8883±489.5 kg DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>, compared to 15 cm with 5714±489.5 kg DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>, and the largest FM was observed in autumn (7977±346,2) compared to spring (6505±346,2 kg DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>,). There was interaction between GMS and season for aruana grass leaf blade area (LBAG) and legume leaflet (LL), (P=0,0038; P=0.0060). LBAG and LL presented smaller values for 30 cm GMS during autumn, of 641 and 3± 86,27 kg DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>. There was seasonal effect (P&lt;0.0001) for the dead material component (DMC), with values of 4412 and 1989± 227.1 kg DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, in autumn and spring. There was a GMS and season effect for LAIaruana and LAITotal (P= 0.0030; P&lt;0.0001, respectively). The highest values of LAIaruana and LAITotal were observed for GMS of 60 cm with values of 4.1 and 4.7, while, the lowest values observed were 2.2 and 2.3 for 15 cm GMS, respectively. The highest values observed for the season were 4.3 and 4.7 during spring for LAIaruana and LAITotal. There was a significant interaction between GMS and season for LAILeg (P= 0.0145), and the highest value was observed for the 60 cm GMS in spring (1.1). Decreasing favorable edafoclimatic conditions and increased grazing pressure by reducing grazing management heights reflected LBGA and LL mass production decrease, contributing to the LAI reduction, but the legumes’ presence increased LAI values. DMC mass presence in unfavorable conditions contributed to the lower LAI values, directly affecting the plants’ photosynthetic apparatus, with lower quantity and quality, impacting forage plant resources. Therefore, FM and LAI were affected by GMS and season. It is not advisable to use grazing management strategies below 45 cm for LAI maintenance, mainly for forage legumes during unfavorable periods.</p> Lucas Ferreira Penteado, Ana Carolina Lopes Batista, Ana Flávia Bastos Ongaro, Giovanna Castilho Santos, Marcelo Moretin Vieira, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa, Flávia Maria de Andrade Gimenes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1835 Fri, 02 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Wheat Silage Production Trials in Minas Gerais http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1836 <p>The use of wheat silage is very advantageousbecause it is a winter crop and does not compete with the traditional summer crops in southern Brazil or the Cerrado biome, such as soybeans andcorn. Preliminary studies developed by EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais) in Patos de Minas demonstrated that the wheat cultivar MGS-Brilhante, characterized by the absence of awn (structures that injure the animals' rumen) has a high potential for silage production. The objective was to evaluate the wheat for silage by its productivity and other agronomic characteristics, of wheat harvested in two trials. For this, two areas belonging to EPAMIG/Centro-Oeste, located in Prudente de Morais and Felixlândia, were used. The soil was fertilized and corrected based on soil analysis interpretation. To establish the experimental fields in Prudente de Morais and Felixlândia, 350kg/ha and 300kg/ha of 8-28-16 fertilizer were used, respectively. The sowing was in rows with 50 cm spacing, using 152 kg/ha of MGS-Brilhante seeds. Both areas were irrigated. The material was harvested when the plants reached dry matter (DM) contents of 32 and 34% in Prudente de Morais and 44% in Felixlândia. The production per area was evaluated using a frame (0.100m²), in which all the forage inside the frame was collected at ground level. Wheat morphological composition (leaves, stems, dead material and spikes) was determined. Subsequently, the plant components were weighed and dried in an oven at 55º C for 72 hours to determine the DM content. Wheat yield data (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and morphological components (kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>) were calculated, all based on DM. The wheat harvested in Prudente de Morais had yields of 22.35 and 22.79t.ha<sup>-1</sup>, plant height (H) of 85.7 and 86.8 cm, leaf mass (LM) of 2314and 1182kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, stem mass (SM) of 13,809 and 10,291kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, dead material mass of 13,809 and 10,291kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, spike mass (SM) of 2,038 and 1,943kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>and percentage of spike on the whole plant (%E) of 9.07 and 8.46%, with the DM contents of 32 and 34%, respectively.The wheat harvested in Felixlândia had yield of 20.22 t ha<sup>-1</sup>, H of 95.3 cm, LM of 4,965 kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, SM of 5599kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, dead material mass of 2110kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, EM of 4528kg.ha<sup>-1</sup>, and %E of 22.08%.On average, the wheat yield was 21.79t.ha<sup>-1</sup>, which for a second harvest is considered excellent. Thus, there is an opportunity to produce silage in the offseason period, when there is usually enough area available for planting. The parameters %DM*EM and %DM*%E showed a positive correlation between cause and effect (0.83 and 0.92, respectively), indicating that higher DM contentled to greater participation of grain in the silage. However, %DM*LM showed a negative correlation (-0.89). This indicates that greater plant physiological maturity resulted in a smaller amount of green leaves and larger spikeamount. Both morphological components are nutritive: the spikeis rich in starch, which is a high-energy ingredient, and the leaf has a high nutrient content and good digestibility. In addition, materials with high DM content hamper silage compaction.Wheat silageproduction is advantageous because in addition to being highly productive, it does not compete with traditional summer crops cultivated in Brazil.</p> Fernanda de Kássia Gomes, Marcio de Souza Bastos, Edilane Aparecida da Silva, Clenderson Corradi de Mattos Gonçalves, Marcelo Abreu Lanza, Karina Toledo da Silva, Maurício Antônio de Oliveira Coelho ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1836 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Evaluation of Microbial Biomass Carbon in Integrated Systems and Monoculture Pastures http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1838 <p>Integrated production systems can stimulate the growth and reproduction of soil microbiota responsible for nutrient cycling. The use of quality indicators such as soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) can help formulate strategies that preserve organic matter and enable more sustainable production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil microbial biomass carbon in integrated production systems, a monoculture system of pasture, and native Cerrado forest. Undeformed soil samples were collected at a site located in the municipality of Barbacena, MG, at depths 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm in four distinct areas, formed by treatment 1: monoculture to pasture (MP) of <em>Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk; treatment 2: combination of legumes and grasses (CLG) composed of <em>Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk and <em>Arachis pintoi</em> cv. Amarillo, with a history of conventional cultivation; treatment 3: silvopastoral system (SSP), composed of <em>Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk and <em>Eucalyptus urophylla</em>; and treatment 4: native forest (NF) of the Cerrado biome, with 37 years of regeneration. To determine the carbon in the biomass, the fumigation-extraction method proposed by Vance et al. (1987) was applied, with fumigation and the addition of chloroform (without alcohol) in the sample, as suggested by Brookes et al. (1982) and Witt et al. (2000). The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications in each treatment. The data obtained were submitted to statistical analysis using the Kruskall-Wallis test and Dunn's test. The microbial biomass carbon reached the lowest level in CLG and highest in FN, with statistical differences in the deeper layers and no statistical difference just in the surface layer (0-5cm). MP and SSP treatments did not differ from FN. In the CLG system, the results found corresponded to 153.1, 152.9, 132.6, 91.3 in layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 respectively, while in the FN system, the values were 295. 7, 265.5, 235 and 235 in the corresponding layers. The CLG system contained on average 49% less carbon in the microbial biomass compared to NF, while the silvopastoral system averaged 8%, and the pasture monoculture had a 12% difference. The higher carbon content of the microbial biomass in the areas of native vegetation, silvopastoral system and monoculture pasture may be a reflection of the continuous supply of organic materials from the litter and rhizosphere, associated with the absence of soil disturbance, constituting a favorable factor for survival and growth of different groups of microorganisms; while the low SMBC in CLG can be explained by the rapid decomposition of organic matter, which has low C:N ratio, and also can be associated with lower litter deposition, limiting microbial activity. Since there was no difference in CBMS between treatments in the 0-5 cm layer, where there is a greater predominance of <em>Arachis pinto</em>i roots, we infer that the fibrous root component present in SSP, MP and NF substantially contributed to the growth of microbial biomass in the subsurface soil layers, providing these systems with better nutrient cycling.</p> Eduardo Affonso de Faria, Camila Eduarda Souza de Sousa, Beatriz Moretto, Francisco Paulo Amaral Junior, Ana Cláudia Ruggieri, Abmael da Silva Cardoso, João Carlos de Carvalho Almeida ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1838 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Productive Responses of the Silage Wheat Cultivarmgs Brilhantewith Different Levels of Nitrogen Topdressing Fertilization http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1839 <p>The Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais (EPAMIG) has developed a wheat cultivar, MGS Brilhante, which does not have an awn and adapts well to different regions of the state. Thus, it is being evaluated as an alternative for the production of silage in the offseason, so far proving to be quite promising. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the productive response of the wheat cultivar MGS Brilhante submitted to different levels of nitrogen fertilization. The study was conducted in the Experimental Center of Vale do Piranga, of EPAMIG, in the municipality of Oratorios, Minas Gerais. Four levels of nitrogen fertilization as topdressing, in the form of agricultural urea, were tested: 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, in addition the control, without the covering fertilization. The design adopted was in randomized blocks, with five treatments and four replications per treatment, totaling 20 experimental plots. These plots were planted on May 10, 2022, re3ceived topdressing fertilization on June 15, 2022, and were harvested and evaluated for yield on August 1, 2022. Dry matter content, dry matter productivity, plant height and lodging rate were evaluated. All data were submitted to analysis of variance and were considered significant at 5% probability. The yield and plant height data were submitted to linear regression analysis. For the average dry matter content, analysis was performed based on the Tukey test. All statistical analyses were performed using the SISVAR 5.6 software. No lodging was observed in any experimental plot. There was a significant difference (P=0.015) in the dry matter contents between the treatment that did not receive any top dressing and the treatments that received doses of 150 and 200 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, and the control treatment had the highest dry matter content (31.42%, 26.75% and 26.55%, respectively). Regarding dry matter productivity and plant height, both variables showed high positive correlation coefficients with fertilizer doses (R²=86.95% and R²=98.21%, respectively). Average yields of 4.77, 6.00, 6.52, 6.54 and 7.10 tons DM ha<sup>-1</sup> and average plant height were found of 1.15, 1.17, 1.22, 1.25 and 1.28 meters in the treatments with 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Nitrogen is a macronutrient that is used in the plants’ photosynthesis process and stimulates increased solar radiation absorption. This means that the greater supply of this nutrient to the plant leads to higher biomass production, because it stimulates the tillering of plants and also increases leaf area. This is the explanation for the increase in plant size and wheat crop productivity with higher doses of nitrogen. The higher dry matter content found in the control treatment, even with all the experimental plots having the same cultivation period, can be explained by the lower leaf area index produced, which caused the proportions of stems and ears, which have lower moisture content, to be higher in these plants. Based on the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region, wecan conclude that the MGS Brilhantecultivarresponds linearly in productivity with the increase in the nitrogen dose, but the cost-benefit ratio of the increment of these doses applied to the crop for silage production should be considered.</p> Márcio de Souza Bastos, Maurício Antônio de Oliveira Coelho, Clenderson Corradi de Mattos Gonçalves, Domingos Sávio Queiroz, Edilane Aparecida da Silva, Ana Cláudia de Freitas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1839 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effect of chemical composition of dung on the emissions of N2O and CH4 http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1840 <p>The objective of this study was to investigate whether the chemical composition of the dung of different species of herbivores (sheep, goats, beef cattle, dairy cattle and horses) can be an indicator of N<sub>2</sub>O and CH<sub>4</sub> emissions. The incubation was conducted in a greenhouse. Soil collection was carried out in an area of <em>Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu</em> that has been established for more than 10 years. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments used were dung from sheep, goats, beef cattle, dairy cattle and horses. The amounts added per treatment were 400 g of soil and 100 g of fresh dung. The soil was maintained at a constant temperature of 18% volumetric moisture throughout the experimental period. The dung samples were dried in forced-air ovens at 55 °C, then ground and analyzed for chemical composition. We evaluated dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), total nitrogen (TN), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), insoluble nitrogen content in neutral detergent fiber (NDIN), insoluble nitrogen and total carbon from dung. After the application of the treatments, sampling was carried out daily during the first week. From the 8th day after application (DAA) onward, collections were made three times a week up to 30 DAA, and weekly up to 100 days of evaluation. Sampling was performed after the chambers were closed (T<sub>0</sub>), and after 30 minutes (T30). To reduce the dimensionality of the data and provide insights into the effect of the chemical composition of dung on N<sub>2</sub>O and CH<sub>4</sub> emissions, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. For this, the data were evaluated in terms of the assumptions of the test. We utilized a factorial map to describe the effect of the chemical composition of dung on the different animal species with emissions of N<sub>2</sub>O. The PCA divided the original dataset to achieve high dimensionality of latent hits, namely PC<sub>1</sub> and PC<sub>2</sub>, as a result of orthogonalization. The primary (61.9%) and secondary (19.6%) components together represented 81.5% of the emissions. The first principal component had positive linear correlations with the eigenvalues, namely N<sub>2</sub>O (r = 0.89, <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05), TN (r = 0.92, <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05), NDIN (r = 0.98,<em> p</em>-value &lt;0.01) and ADIN (r = 0.88,<em> p</em>-value &lt;0.05). In contrast, there were negative linear correlations with NDF (r = - 0.93, <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05) and C/N (r = - 0.94, <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05). For PC<sub>2</sub>, there was a positive linear correlation with the variable VS (r = - 0.89, <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05), and negative correlation with CH<sub>4</sub> (r = - 0.94, <em>p</em>-value &lt;0.05). The results corroborate other works that have demonstrated the increase of N<sub>2</sub>O emissions as the NT content increases and the C/N ratio decreases. This study also demonstrates the need for more research to evaluate the interactions between moisture and dung microbiota with N<sub>2</sub>O emissions.</p> Beatriz Moretto, Francisco Paulo Amaral Júnior, Eduardo Affonso de Faria, Camila Eduarda Souza de Sousa, Vanessa Zirondi Longhini, Abmael da Silva Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Ruggieri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1840 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Cumulative Emissions and Fraction N Emitted as N2O in Excreta of Different Herbivore Species http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1841 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative emissions and fraction of N emitted as N<sub>2</sub>O in dung of different species of herbivores (sheep, goats, beef cattle, dairy cattle and horses). The incubation was conducted in a greenhouse. Soil collection was carried out in an area of<em> Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu</em> that has been established for more than 10 years. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments used were dung from sheep, goats, beef cattle, dairy cattle and horses. The amounts added per treatment were 400 g of soil and 100 g of fresh dung. The soil was maintained at a constant temperature and 18% volumetric moisture throughout the experimental period. The remaining Mason jars were kept in the incubator regulated at a constant temperature of 25.0 ± 1.0 ºC and 80% relative humidity. The dung samples were dried in forced-air ovens at 55 °C, then ground and analyzed for dry matter (DM) and total nitrogen (TN). After the application of the treatments, the sampling was carried out daily during the first week. From the 8th day after application (DAA) onward, samples were collected three times a week up to 30 DAA, and weekly up to 100 days of evaluation. Sampling was performed after the chambers were closed (T<sub>0</sub>), and after 30 minutes (T30). There was a difference in cumulative N<sub>2</sub>O emissions between the evaluated dung, with the lowest emissions for dung of dairy cattle and horses, and the highest cumulative emission for goat dung (p&lt;0.001). The cumulative emissions from dung of beef cattle and sheep did not differ from each other, and did not equal the cumulative emissions of the other treatments (p&lt;0.001). For the fraction of N emitted as N<sub>2</sub>O, the highest fractions were found in goat and beef cattle dung, and the lowest in horse dung (p&lt;0.001). The fractions of N emitted in the form of N<sub>2</sub>O by the dung of dairy cattle and sheep showed no significant difference between each other (p&lt;0.001). The highest accumulated N<sub>2</sub>O emissions found in the dung of small ruminants and beef cattle were a reflection of the positive cumulative fluxes recorded during the 100 days of evaluation. The dung of these animals had anaerobic conditions due to the higher moisture content, so different trends in mineralization-immobilization in dung were caused by moisture, influencing the emission of N<sub>2</sub>O. The fractions of N emitted as N­O were different from the findings reported in the literature. According to the IPCC (2019), higher fractions of N emitted as N<sub>2</sub>O come from cattle dung, opposite to what was found in this study, where N<sub>2</sub>O emissions by small ruminants were greater than or equal to those from large ruminants. The discrepancy between the results is due to different factors, among them environmental conditions in which the studies were carried out, the chemical composition of dung, and rate of N application by dung.</p> Beatriz Moretto, Francisco Paulo Amaral Júnior, Eduardo Affonso de Faria, Camila Eduarda Souza de Sousa, Vanessa Zirondi Longhini, Abmael da Silva Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Ruggieri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1841 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Cumulative Methane Emissions in Dung of Different Herbivore Species http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1842 <p>Grasslands cover about 40% of the Earth's surface, and in addition to forage production, they provide ecosystem services such as carbon storage and soil protection, so they are considered important sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG). Despite this, the dung from grazing animals deposited in the soil, usually unevenly distributed in relatively small areas, can provide favorable conditions for methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) emissions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulated methane emissions in the dung of different species of herbivores (sheep, goats, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and horses). Incubation was carried out in a greenhouse. Soil collection was carried out in an area of Palisade grass planted more than 10 years ago. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments used were dung from sheep, goats, beef cattle, dairy cattle, and horses. The amounts added per treatment were 400 g of soil and 100 g of fresh dung. The soil was maintained at a constant temperature and 18% volumetric moisture throughout the experimental period. The remaining vials were kept in the incubator at a constant temperature of 25.0 ± 1.0 °C and 80% relative humidity during the test period. After applying the treatments, samples were collected daily during the first week. From the 8th day after application (DAA) onward, sampling was performed three times a week until 30 DAA, and weekly until 100 days of evaluation. Sampling was performed after closing the chambers (T<sub>0</sub>) and after 30 minutes (T<sub>30</sub>). A difference was found between the accumulated emissions of CH<sub>4</sub> from the evaluated dung. The highest emissions were released by dairy cattle manure, followed by beef cattle (p&lt;0.001). The dung of goats, sheep, and horses showed the lowest accumulated emissions of CH<sub>4</sub>, not differing from each other. The cumulative emissions found in the present study corroborate the findings reported by several studies, that the manure of dairy cows is responsible for more significant CH<sub>4</sub> emissions compared to beef cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. The authors indicated that fecal moisture has a high influence on CH<sub>4 </sub>emissions. The high moisture content observed in dairy cattle manure may have hindered oxygen infiltration, favoring a longer period of anaerobic conditions and CH<sub>4</sub> emission, unlike what was observed for small ruminant manure, where low humidity may have limited the process. of methanogenesis. Although the equine dung presented high humidity, low cumulative methane emissions were observed. Franz et al. (2010) and Elghandour et al. (2019) reported that horses have intestinal structures and microbial communities in contrast to ruminants, with smaller communities of protozoa and archaea, explaining the lower emission of CH<sub>4</sub> by the dung of these animals. Thus, factors inherent to each animal influence GHG emissions through dung.</p> Beatriz Moretto, Francisco Paulo Amaral Júnior, Eduardo Affonso de Faria, Camila Eduarda Souza de Sousa, Vanessa Zirondi Longhini, Abmael da Silva Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Ruggieri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1842 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effect of Bioinputs on The Leaf Nitrogen Contents of Corn Cultivated in Soils Under Different Management http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1843 <p>The use of bioinputs in agriculture presents is a promising method that can reduce costs and promote greater plant development, with responses that depend on edaphic conditions influenced by different soil management systems. <em>Herbaspirillum seropedicae</em> and <em>Azospirillum brasilense</em> are promising bacteria that can act as bioinputs, with distinct effects on plant development. Bacteria of the genus <em>Herbaspirillum</em> are classified as obligate endophytic diazotrophs, which colonize the interior of plants and have low survival in the soil. <em>Azospirillum</em> is a genus of facultative endophytic diazotrophic bacteria that colonize both the interior and surface of roots. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate, in a greenhouse, the effects of isolated or co-inoculated bioinputs based on <em>H. seropedicae</em> and <em>A. brasilense</em> on the mineral nutrition of creole maize, grown in soils with different management histories. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with planting in 5 dm<sup>3</sup> pots, filled with soil collected in an experimental area with a history of different management systems, implemented in a 2x2x4 factorial scheme, with four replications, as follows: two soils, collected in areas with history of a no-tillage system (HNTS) and conventional tillage system (HCTS), two soils collected in areas with a history of irrigation with swine wastewater (HSW) and water history (HW), equivalent to 100% of the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and four applications of bioinputs with variations in fertilization (NPK): B0 - without bioinputs + 100% fertilization; B1 - <em>H. seropedicae</em> + 40% fertilization; B2 - <em>A. brasilense</em> + 40% fertilization; and B3 - co-inoculation <em>H. se;ropedicae</em> and <em>A. brasilense</em> + 40% fertilization. Pot irrigation was calculated to reach 70% of field capacity. After 60 days of training, maize leaves were collected for foliar N determination. The experimental data were submitted to analysis of variance by applying the F-test (p≤0.05). The effect of bioinputs on foliar N content stood out in HNTS and HSW soils, indicating that co-inoculation with 40% fertilization (B3) (21.75 g kg of N) generated a slight decrease in relation to treatment B0 (100% fertilization) (24.53 g kg N). Treatment B3 was statistically superior to B1 and B2, demonstrating the positive and synergistic effects of co-inoculation for N absorption. These results can be attributed to the ability of the studied bioinputs to promote biological N fixation. Another situation to be highlighted is the better results attributed to the HNTS soil, which can be attributed to its better biological quality, since the no-tillage system generates an edaphic environment favorable to the development of inoculated microorganisms. This effect is related to the deposition of residues from this management system, providing an increase in carbon organic (CO) matter in the soil (HNTS 14.2 g kg<sup>-1</sup> and HCTS 12.3 g kg<sup>-1 </sup>CO), which is directly related to greater stability of microbial communities and their population increase. This has a biostimulant and/or plant biofertilizer effect. Soil with a history of no-tillage management and irrigation with swine wastewater provided a more favorable rhizospheric environment for maintaining the microbial population, increasing the effect of N fixation by bacteria applied via bioinputs, especially when co-inoculated.</p> Rebyson B. Guidinelle, Filipe. P. S Teixeira, Felipe B. Ramos, Antônio M. A. C. Rodrigues, Diego L. Burak, Otacilio J. P. Rangel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1843 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Intercropping With Sorghum and Megathyrsus for Silage and Pasture Production in Integrated Systems http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1844 <p>The search for sustainability has been arousing increasing interest in production systems that improve productivity and minimize environmental impacts. An alternative is the intercropped sowing technique, which has shown positive results in the production of silage and pasture in integrated systems. This study aimed to compare the conventional sowing of forage sorghum or intercropping with <em>Megathyrsus maximum</em> cv. Mombaça or <em>M. maximum</em> cv. Zuri for productivity (t ha<sup>-1</sup> of green mass) and dry matter (%) of sorghum and grasses during harvest. Additionally, the number of sorghum plants per linear meter, and the dry matter and dry forage mass (FM) of grasses in the first regrowth in the intercropped treatments were evaluated. The experiment was carried out at the Instituto de Zootecnia in Ribeirão Preto, in a field of seven hectares. The experimental design was randomized blocks (three blocks) and three treatments: forage sorghum (FS), forage sorghum intercropped with Zuri (SZ) and forage sorghum intercropped with Mombaça (SM). The data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance using the PROC GLM of SAS (2013) and the differences between the means of the treatments were contrasted using the PDIFF option. Results were considered statistically significant when P&lt;0.10. The values in t ha<sup>-1</sup> of green mass at harvest were significantly different (P=0.07) between the treatments studied, indicating higher productivity for the intercropped treatments, regardless of the type of grass (55.34 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for SZ and 55.66 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for SM compared to conventional sorghum, of 34.11 t ha<sup>-1</sup>). The material harvested was ensiled with ideal values of dry matter, being 30.83% for FS, 29.75% for SZ and 31.72% for SM, with no significant difference between them (P=0.48). Zuri and Mombaça grasses yielded 29.54 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 25.87 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of green mass, respectively, with no significant difference between them (P=0.63). The number of plants per linear meter of sorghum was not significantly different between treatments (P=0.23). The results were 6.58, 7.66 and 6.16 for FS, SZ and SM, respectively. The results of dry matter content and forage mass yield (t ha<sup>-1</sup>) in the first regrowth of grasses did not differ significantly (P=0.51 and P=0.50, respectively), with mean values of 22.70% and 1.45 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for SZ and 22.30% and 1.58 t ha<sup>-1</sup> for SM. Thus, the results show the productive benefits of the use of intercropping of sorghum with forages of the species <em>Megathyrsus maximum</em> for silage production, compared to conventional planting. In addition, it provides the formation of pasture for cattle in the dry season, simultaneously sharing the soil, agricultural inputs, machinery, labor and fuel, in the implementation of the systems, contributing to sustainability.</p> Priscila C. Domingues dos Santos, Fernando André Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira Salles, Gabriela Aferri, Gabrielly Antunes Cassiano, Tamara Machado da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1844 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Production of Mixed Pastures of Marandu Palisadegrass and Stylosanthes SPP. Submitted to Shade http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1845 <p>This study evaluated the productivity of mixed canopies of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu palisadegrass and Stylosanthes spp cv. Campo Grande at different shading levels during the dry season in the Cerrado biome of Midwest Brazil. The trial was carried out at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks. Plots of 30 m2 (5 x 6 m) were established. The shading conditions (0, 30 and 50%) were obtained using shades arranged over the experimental plots. The light interception (LI) and leaf area index (LAI) of the canopies were measured with an AccuPAR LP-80 canopy analyzer. Pasture production was estimated through the total forage mass (TFM), and botanical composition was determined through grass forage mass (GM) and legume forage mass (LM). Morphological composition was also estimated through grass and legume leaf mass (gLM and lLM, respectively), grass stem mass (gSM), legume stalk mass (lSM), grass dead material mass (gDM and lDM, respectively), grass and legume green mass (gGM and lGM, respectively), and leaf stem or stalk ratio (L:S) of legume and grass. These evaluations were performed by collecting samples using frames (0.25m2) and cutting the forage close to the ground. Samples were weighed and separated for botanical and morphological composition, later weighed and placed in an oven at 55 °C for 72 hours to obtain dry matter. The 50% shade provided greater LI (P&lt;0.05; 77.4%) in relation to 0 and 30% (71.6 and 73.1%, respectively). The LAI did not vary between treatments, with averages of 1.92 cm² (P&gt;0.05). There was no effect of canopy height between shading levels (p&gt;0.05), showing an average height of 47.1 cm between treatments. The 50% shade resulted in higher TFM and GM (P&lt;0.05; 9,596 and 9,153 kg.ha-1, respectively) compared to the averages of other treatments (7,685 and 8,048 kg.ha-1 and, 7,226 and 7,491 kg.ha-1, respectively). There was no effect of shading levels on LM, which averaged 487 kg.ha-1. There was no difference in gLM, gSM and leaf:stem ratio (P&gt;0.05). The gDM was highest at 30% (P&lt;0.05; 1052 kg.ha-1), intermediate at the 50% (903 kg.ha-1) and lowest at the 0% shading level (760 kg.ha-1). The MVF was higher with 50% shade (P&lt;0.05; 8693 kg.ha-1) in relation to the average of the other treatments (7,226 and 6,996 kg.ha-1, respectively). There was no effect of shading for the legume morphological composition variables (P&gt;0.05). The greater shading promoted higher LI, TFM, and GM without impacting the legume population in the dry season in the Cerrado biome.</p> Fernanda de Kássia Gomes, Angelo Herbet Moreira Arcanjo, Jeniffer da Cruz Siqueira, Jéssica Batista Jéssica Batista, Anderson Ramires Candido, Omar Ali, Alexandre Menezes Dias ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1845 Wed, 07 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Evaluation of Soil C:N Ratio in Integrated Systems and Grass in Monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1847 <p>The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of the soil, when associated through the C:N ratio, make it possible to obtain indices that reveal the quality of soil organic matter (OM), as well as the decomposition efficiency, conversion efficiency of carbon and organic nitrogen into their mineral forms, and the dynamics of these nutrients in the soil. According to the literature, the C:N ratio can be between 30 - 100 in native forest areas and 20 - 30 in cultivated areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between soil carbon and nitrogen in integrated systems, monoculture pasture, and native Cerrado forest. Undeformed soil samples were collected once at a site located in the municipality of Barbacena, MG, at depths 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm in four distinct areas, designated as treatment 1: pasture monoculture (MP) of <em>Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk with 27 years of plantation; treatment 2: grass-legume combination (GLC), composed of <em>Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk and <em>Arachis pintoi</em> cv. Amarillo with 25 years of plantation; treatment 3: silvopastoral system (SSP), composed of <em>Eucalyptus urophylla</em> planted 13 years ago in an area where<em> Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basiliskwas was already established for 14 years; and treatment 4: native forest (NF) of the Cerrado biome with 37 years of regeneration. The quantification of total organic C was performed according to the method proposed by Yeomans and Bremmer (1988); and the determination of total N was performed as proposed by Bremner and Mulvaney (1982) and adapted by Mendonça and Matos (2005). The experimental design completely randomized, with five replications in each treatment.&nbsp;The data were submitted to statistical analysis using the Kruskall-Wallis test and Dunn's test. The NF system showed the highest C:N ratio at all evaluated depths (32.3 – 40.6), being statistically similar to MP (30 – 37) and SSP (25.5 – 28.5). The CGL system did not show statistical similarity with MP and FN, but it was equal to SSP (p&lt;0.05). The higher C:N ratio found in the native forest may be an inherent factor of the diversity of species in this system, which contains higher levels of compounds such as lignin and polyphenols that decompose slowly. When evaluating the C:N ratio in integrated systems, the lower C:N ratio in CGL can be explained by the presence of the legume, which produces residues with a low carbon:nitrogen ratio in the soil due to the high availability of N in its biomass. In SSP, the C:N ratio found between 25 and 28.5 indicated that the presence of the tree component favored the entry of nitrogen into the soil when compared to forage in monoculture.&nbsp;The C:N ratio in SSP and CGL indicated that these nutrients did not undergo immobilization in the soil, or excessive mineralization, causing a balance between C input and output, favoring nutrient cycling and OM mineralization. The data from this study indicate that integrated systems are capable of promoting better soil conditions for the decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling in comparison with the non-integrated systems.</p> Eduardo Affonso de Faria, Camila Eduarda Souza de Sousa, Gilmar Cotrin de Lima, Beatriz Moretto, Ana Cláudia Ruggieri, Abmael da Silva Cardoso, João Carlos de Carvalho Almeida ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1847 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Evaluation of The Proportion of Touches in Botanical Components and Forage Mass in Multispecies Pastures Under Continuous Stocking http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1848 <p>The pasture structure consists of the three-dimensional arrangement of botanical and morphological components, shaped by environmental and grazing conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of grazing management strategies (GMS) on touch proportion on botanical components during height measurements (TPH) and forage mass (FM) in multispecies pastures. The experiment was conducted at the Instituto de Zootecnia in Nova Odessa, SP in summer (January and February 2021) and winter (June and July 2021). Multispecies pastures were composed of aruana grass (<em>Megathirsus maximum cv. Aruana</em>) and a mixture of forage legumes: calopo (<em>Calopogonium mucunoides</em>), macrotyloma (<em>Macrotyloma axillare</em>) and stylo (<em>Stylosanthes macrocephalla+Stylosanthes capitata</em>). The study was conducted in four randomized blocks with four treatments (15, 30, 45 and 60 cm canopy heights considering the GMS) and four replications (500 m²/each paddock), in continuous stocking with sheep. For the evaluation of TPH, aruana grass leaf blade (PAGLB), legume follicle (PLF) and invasive plants (PIP), the training of observers was first performed later, with a monthly frequency at the time of the 50 readings of the average heights of the paddocks, generating percentage values of participation. For the evaluation of the FM, soil level cutting was performed in three areas of 0.25 m² representative of the average height of the paddocks. The samples were divided into two subsamples for separation of components and quantification of total dry matter. Analysis of variance was performed with PROC MIXED of the SAS software, and the Tukey test was applied for comparison of the means (P&lt;0.05). The TPH of PAGLB, PFL and PIP components was affected by the seasons (P= 0.0013; P&lt;0.0001; P= 0.0403, respectively). The highest values of PAGLB and PIP were found in winter (62±3.1 and 25±2.2%) compared to summer (53±3.1 and 21±2,2%. For PFL, the highest value was found in summer compared to winter (25 and 13±1.7%). For the variable FM and aruana grass mass (AGM), there was an effect of GMS (P= 0.0060; P= 0.0021). The highest values of FM and AGM were for the 60 cm strategy, with 10451± 691.9 and 5675± 448.9 kg of DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, and the lowest values of FM and AGM were for the 15 cm strategy with 7351±691.9 and 3044±448.9 kg of DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. FM, AGM, legume mass (LM) and invasive plant mass (IPM) were affected by the seasons (P&lt;0.0001, respectively for all variables). For FM, AGM, LM and IPM, the highest values found were during summer (10237±546.9; 5758±353.9; 432±61.6 and 714±112.7 kg of DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>), in relation to winter (7179±399.4; 3019±255.7; 109±43.6; 78±86.6 kg of DM.ha<sup>-1</sup>). PAGLB and PIP obtained higher values during winter, unlike FM, possibly due to the larger size of these components in winter than summer, which contributes to higher number of touches. For PFL, there was a relationship between its proportion of touches and presence in FM during the summer. This was also due to the fact that calopo and macrotyloma have a twining growth habit and stylo has shrubby habit, which in periods of favorable weather conditions, were able to access the top of the forage canopy, allowing the touch of their structures. The pattern of responses to the relationship between THP and FM needs more studies and has been changed due to the modifications caused by the GMS and environmental conditions in its reflection in the pasture structure.</p> Lucas Ferreira Penteado, Ana Carolina Lopes Batista, Ana Flávia Bastos Ongaro, Giovanna Castilho, Marcelo Moretin Vieira, Sérgio Domingos Simão, Flávia Maria de Andrade Gimenes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1848 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Structure and Productivity of Mavuno Grass Subject to Different N:K Ratios http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1849 <p>Fertilization of pastures has increased the level of animal performance due to the greater supply and higher quality of forage. One of the best known functions of potassium is regulating the opening and closing of stomata, which are responsible for gas exchange and photorespiration of the plant. Nitrogen (N) participates in the composition of proteins, amino acids and enzymes responsible for metabolic reactions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural and productive characteristics of Mavuno grass (Urochloa brizantha) subjected to fertilization with different N:K ratios. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the experimental farm of Igarapé-açu, belonging to Federal Rural University of Amazônia. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments, corresponding to nitrogen (urea) and potassium (potassium chloride) ratios, respectively, of 0:0; 75:0; 0:75; 75:75; 150:75; 300:150 kg of nutrient ha, with five replications, totaling 30 experimental units (pots). The soil used was collected in the top layer (0-20 cm). Its acidity was corrected and it was air dried and sieved through 2 mm mesh. Each pot received 10 kg of soil. The experiment had two evaluation cycles of 28 days each. To evaluate the final leaf size (FLS), the size of all mature leaves of three marked tillers was measured with a ruler, while the number of live leaves (NLL) was obtained by counting leaves of the same tillers. At the end of each cycle, the average height of the plants was measured and the tiller count in each pot was recorded to obtain the tiller population density (TPD). In addition, the forage mass was collected above a residue (stubble) of 20 cm. This material was weighed and subsequently separated into leaf blades (LB), stems (S) and dead material (DM) to calculate the percentage of each component. The material was dried in a forced-air oven at 65 °C until reaching constant weight. From this, the dry mass production of the aerial part (DMPAP) was obtained. The NLL had an effect (P&lt;0.01), with the highest value for the 0:0 ratio and the lowest for the 0:75, 150:75 and 300:150 ratios. In addition, there also was an effect on MSPA per pot (P&lt;0.01), where the ratio of 75:75 showed approximately 60% greater MSPA than 0:0. This can be explained by the nitrogen fertilization, which increased the production of dry mass of forage. The N:K ratios had an effect on DPP (P&lt;0.01), with the highest density in the 300:150 ratio and the lowest in the 0:0 and 75:0 ratio. In addition, there was also an effect on the PMSPA per pot (P&lt;0.01), where the ratio of 75:75 showed approximately 60% higher PMSPA than 0:0. The %MM was also influenced by the fertilization ratios (P&lt;0.01), where a higher %MM was observed for the 300:150 ratio and the lowest for the 0:0 ratio. As for the variables of leaf size (FLS), height, %LF and %S, no effect of N:K fertilization was observed (P&gt;0.05). The population density of tillers increased according to the increasing doses of N:K. This result can mainly be attributed to the presence of nitrogen, since it stimulates the development of the aerial part of grass, which produce more tillers under favorable growth conditions. The N:K ratios in the maintenance fertilization of Mavuno grass changed the structural and productive characteristics, since the application of only one of these nutrients did not change the plants’ growth.</p> Mônica Oliveira Rio Branco, Airton da Conceição dos Santos, Lucas Calabria Correia Rodrigues, Andreza dos Santos Amoras, Nauara Moura Lage Filho, Ebson Pereira Cândido, Thiago Carvalho da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1849 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effect of Bioinputs on the Initial Growth of Creole Maize http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1851 <p>Bacteria-based microbial inoculants are bioinputs that colonize plants and produce important results for the vegetative development, with positive effects on nutrient and water absorption, also stimulating plant resistance to abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a greenhouse, isolated or co-inoculated, bioinputs based on Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Azospirillum brasilense with better performance in the initial growth of creole maize, in different edaphic conditions. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with soil collected in an experimental area under different management systems. The factorial scheme adopted was 2x4x4, with four replications, as follows: two irrigation conditions in the greenhouse (70% and 45% of field capacity- FC); soil collected in areas with different management histories: M1 - no-tillage system (NTS) irrigated with swine waste water (SW), M2 – conventional tillage system (SPC) irrigated with SW, M3 - NTS irrigated with water (WA) and M4 - SPC irrigated with WA and; four applications of bioinputs with variations in fertilization (NPK): B0 – without bioinputs + 100% fertilization; B1 - H. seropedicae + 40% fertilization; B2 - A. brasilense + 40% fertilization; and B3 - co-inoculation with H. seropedicae and A. brasilense + 40% fertilization. After 60 days, plant height (PH) and shoot dry mass (SDM) were evaluated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the F-test (p≤0.05) to verify the significance of the effects of factors and the interactions. The results demonstrated there was no significant difference for PH, both for the isolated effect of bioinputs and for their interaction with irrigation. These results were satisfactory, since with only 40% fertilization with NPK, treatments B1, B2 and B3 presented similar responses to B0, where 100% fertilization with NPK was applied. Bacteria of the genera Azospirillum and Herbaspirillum produce phytohormones that promote plant growth. The production of auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins by microorganisms associated with plants is reported in the literature. The production of SDM in treatment B0 stood out statistically (p&lt;0.05), both in isolation and for the interaction with 70% FC irrigation. Even so, the production of SDM in treatments that received B1, B2 and B3 was, on average, 12.34% lower than in B0, when analyzed in isolation. Plants with the same PH produced more SDM in the treatment with 100% fertilization with NPK and absence of bioinputs. This effect may be related to the cell elongation caused by the bioinputs, due to the action of auxins, in which the cells get longer but do not acquire mass. The effect of bioinputs on the vegetative growth of creole maize is well known, even though it does not provide SDM gains statistically similar to plants that had access to an ideal condition of fertilization and irrigation. The 60 percentage point decrease in NPK fertilization did not represent such a severe loss of SDM production in the 70% FC irrigation treatment. These reductions were 16.50% (B1), 16.70% (B2) and 16.90% (B3), when compared to B0. With irrigation equivalent to 45% of FC, even with only 40% fertilization with NPK, the SDM results of the bioinputs (B0, B1, B2 and B3) were statistically equal. These results are promising, since they reveal the performance of bioinputs in conditions of water stress and low availability of nutrients in the soil.</p> Rebyson B. Guidinelle, Filipe. P. S Teixeira, Felipe B. Ramos, Antônio M. A. C. Rodrigues, Otacilio J. P. Rangel, Diego L. Burak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1851 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effect of Bioinputs on Gaseous Exchange of Corn Grown in Soils Under Different Management Systems http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1852 <p>The inoculation of bioinputs based on microorganisms in corn crops has been showing positive results for plant development. The literature contains several reports of such effects, in which acting in isolation or co-inoculated, they stimulate physiological changes in plants, promoting changes in the root architecture and in the aerial part of the plant. <em>Herbaspirillum seropedicae</em> and <em>Azospirillum brasilense</em> are promising bacteria for use as bioinputs, with distinct effects on plant development. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate isolated or co-inoculated bioinputs based on <em>H. seropedicae</em> and <em>A. brasilense</em> and their effects on the gaseous exchange of creole corn, cultivated in soils with different management histories. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with planting in 5 dm<sup>3</sup> pots containing soil collected in an experimental area under different management systems, implemented in a 2x2x4 factorial scheme, with four replications, as follows: two soils collected in areas with history of no-tillage system (HNTS) and conventional tillage system (HCTS), two soils collected in areas with a history of irrigation with swine wastewater (HSW) and water (HW), equivalent to 100% of the actual crop evapotranspiration - ETc, and; four applications of bioinputs with variations in fertilization (NPK): B0 - without bioinputs + 100% fertilization, B1 - <em>H. seropedicae</em> + 40% fertilization, B2 - <em>A. brasilense</em> + 40% fertilization and B3 - co-inoculation with <em>H. seropedicae</em> and <em>A. brasilense</em> + 40% fertilization. Pot irrigation was calculated to reach 70% of field capacity. After 60 days, the gaseous exchange in fully expanded leaves was measured using a portable infrared gas analyzer (IRGA), model LI 6400 XT Portable Photosynthesis Siystem (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, USA), to obtain the following variables: instantaneous water use efficiency (USA) (W/E) [(µmol CO<sub>2</sub> m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>)/(mmol H<sub>2</sub>O m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>)] and gs – stomatal conductance (mol H<sub>2</sub>O m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>). The experimental data were submitted to analysis of variance with the F-test (p≤0.05). Data related to A/E showed a tendency to increase when bioinputs were applied, especially when <em>A. brasilense</em> was present in isolation (B2) or co-inoculated (B3) for HSW. The data related to gs showed a trend of significantly higher stomatal conductance when analyzing the HSW values in the HNTS. The treatments (B1, B2 and B3) were responsible for providing higher gs, which is described as promoting increased gaseous exchange and also increased activity of H<sup>+</sup>-ATPases. The production of auxin, which stimulates stomatal opening, was an extremely positive result, since the functioning of the stomata controls the absorption of CO<sub>2</sub>, and consequently the plant production. In addition, bioinputs raised A/E, i.e., plants produced more while consuming less water. The bioinputs positively affected the attributes related to gaseous exchange of creole corn, even in a condition with lower nutrient availability.</p> Rebyson B. Guidinelle, Filipe. P. S Teixeira, Felipe B. Ramos, Antônio M. A. C. Rodrigues, Diego L. Burak, Otacilio J. P. Rangel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1852 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Morphogenetic Characteristics of Mavuno Grass Subject to Different N:K Ratios http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1853 <p>This study aimed to evaluate the morphogenetic characteristics of Mavuno grass (Urochloa hybrid) submitted to different ratios of N:K fertilization. The experiment took place in a greenhouse at Fazenda Escola de Igarapé-Açu, Pará. A completely randomized design was carried out, with six treatments referring to the proportions of nitrogen and potassium applied, respectively 0:0; 75:0; 0:75; 75:75; 150:75; 300:150 kg.ha-1 of nutrient. Ten seeds were sown in each pot containing soil corrected by liming. The seedlings were thinned after 14 days, leaving only 3 plants. Every 7 days, evaluations of the morphogenetic characteristics were carried out, immediately after fertilization. After measurements with a ruler, it was possible to calculate the morphogenetic variables of Mavuno grass: Leaf Elongation Rate (LER), Leaf Appearance Rate (LAR), Phylochron (Phylum), Leaf Life Duration (LLD), Leaf Senescence Rate (LSR) and Stem Elongation Rate (SER). Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and when significance (P&lt;0.05) was observed, means were compared using the Tukey test, at a significance level of 5%. An effect of N:K ratios was observed on LAR (P = 0.043), where the lowest LER is observed at the 0:75 ratio, and the highest at the 75:75 ratio, showing the importance of complete fertilization in the system. The LSR and LLD variables showed significant effects (P = 0.030 and P = 0.014, respectively), with higher rates of senescence at the 350:150 ratio and lower at the 0:0 ratio, and since this variable has an inverse relationship with the LLD, a DVF value of 20.63 days was observed at the 0:0 ratio and 11.43 days at the 350:150 ratio. The SER was higher at the 75:75 ratio, with values of 0.28 cm of stem per day. In general, the different N:K ratios altered the morphogenetic characteristics of the Mavuno grass, highlighting the effect of complete fertilization in the system, accelerating the development of the grass.</p> Saymon Augusto Gavinho Amorim, João Victor Costa de Oliveira, Suianne Lorena da Silva e Silva, Larissa Lohanna Fereira de Lima, Rômulo Engelhard Silva Filho, Geissy Helen de Sousa, Aníbal Coutinho do Rêgo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1853 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Analysis of the Farmers’ Perspective on Their Limitations for the Adoption of Different Pasture Management Practices http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1854 <p>To meet the increasing demand for higher productivity and sustainability of Brazilian livestock production, it is necessary identify the limitations of the production process. The objective of this work was to descriptively evaluate the perspective of rural farmers interviewed regarding the challenges of pasture management practices by listing the selected management factors (SMF): cost of fertilization (CF); implementation cost (IC); cost of herbicides (CH); soil correction/mechanical preparation (SC); lack of labor (LL); seedling implantation (SI); and quality and availability of seeds (QAS), in descending order of limitation to the farmers. A questionnaire was applied online to obtain information for the characterization of these farmers and their properties, and SMF was ranked a 1 to 6 Likert scale, where 1-2 denoted small limitation, 3-4 as limiting and 5-6 as very limiting. The choice of this type of scale was to understand the behavior of the farmers through a self-descriptive statement, to establish different intensities of answers, allowing a qualitative answer to quantitative questioning. The questionnaire obtained 33 answers among those sent: from the Northern region (respondents from the state of Tocantins – 1 answer); from the Midwest (respondents from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul – 3 answers; from the Southeast (respondents from the state of Minas Gerais - 8 answers); and from the Southern region (respondents from the state of Paraná - with 4 answers). As observed, the respondents were mainly classified as small farmers (61%), who do not use technical assistance (68%), and plant with high capacity rates (36% between 3.1-6.0 or more than 6.0 UA.ha-1). It was also possible to identify that these farmers perform on average three pasture maintenance activities, among them pasture height limitation and forage mass and maintenance fertilization. These responses contextualize the reality of the Brazilian production system, pointing to the lack of resources for new investments in small properties, the misuse of forage resources due to lack of technical and quality information, leading to the need for implementation of new practices and pasture restoration, and the absence of knowledge about the support capacity of pasture, regarding the high applied capacity rates. These results denote the frequent absence of nutrient replacement to plants and lack of actions for pasture and grazing management. Consequently, this situation contributes to the reduction of the vegetative index of these pastures, aggravating uncovered soil conditions and the occurrence invasive species or erosion, leading to the formation of new degraded areas, further reducing the value of Brazilian productive indexes. The results show that lower access to information/technical assistance is associated with greater the risks of these activities and consequently lower efficiency in relation to scenarios with assertive management actions and forage planning. Regarding the selected management factors, it was possible to identify CF as a practice of greatest limitation to farmers, especially nitrogen fertilization, due to large price fluctuations and instability of the national and international markets. QAS was defined as having small limitation, since investment in genetic improvement has increased, along with the increase in market rigor in relation to the value of marketed seeds and the large number of companies available in the market. For SMF, the following was the priority order according to the interviewed farmers: CF &gt; IC &gt; LL &gt; CH = SI &gt; SC &gt; QAS.</p> Lucas Ferreira Penteado, Jéssica Alexandra Giarola Agostinho, Ana Carolina Lopes Batista, Ana Flávia Bastos Ongaro, Flávia Maria de Andrade Gimenes, Wilson Milani Zambianco ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1854 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Detection of Genes Related to Growth Traits in Sheep in Copy Number Variation Regions http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1875 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In Brazil, the Santa Ines sheep breed has aptitude for meat production, standing out for its rusticity and high productivity. Genomic studies in poorly studied breeds are of great importance, as they make it possible, through genotyping, to find sources of structural variations in the sheep genome. Copy number variations (CNV) are the major source of structural variation among individuals, which are defined as modifications in the genome where the number of copies of a genomic DNA sequence differs from a reference genome. These studies make it possible to advance knowledge of the genomes of poorly studied species such as sheep. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify genes related to growth traits in Santa Ines sheep bred in copy number variation regions (CNVR). A total of 638 animals were genotyped with the Ovine SNP50 Genotyping BeadChip (Ilumina). Markers with unknown genomic position and located on sex chromosomes in the reference genome Oar_v 3.1 were excluded. The adjustment of the GC content was performed to reduce the rate of false positive CNVs, considering 500 Kb around each SNP. CNV detection was performed with the PennCNV software, where CNVs identified in only one sample, with fewer than three SNPs, BAF drift&gt;0.01 and GC wave factor&gt;0.09 were excluded. CNVRs were inferred by concatenating individual CNVs identified in more than one animal using the CNVRuler software, excluding genomic regions with an allelic frequency lower than 0.5% and with recurrence &lt;0.1. A total of 742 CNVs (357 deletions and 385 duplications) were detected, which were grouped in 360 CNVRs (224 gain, 132 loss and 4 both) detected on all autosomal chromosomes. The CNVRs inferred in this study had an average size of 142,655 bp (from 12,139 to 2,643,483 bp), covered 2.03% of the autosomal genome sequence, and had frequencies ranging from 0.31% to 4.85% in this population. The OAR1 showed the largest number of CNVRs (40), while the OAR20 presented the smallest number of CNVRs (3). A total of 832 Ensembl ID from protein-coding genes were identified in these CNVRs. Subsequently, functional enrichment analysis was performed with the DAVID software and revealed 44 Gene Ontology terms and 8 enriched KEGG pathways (P&lt;0.05). Among the genes identified in the CNVRs, we highlight the following genes related to muscle growth and development:<em> CCNT2, UNC45B, DYNC1LI2, KLHL40, MYH1, CORO1B</em> and <em>KMT5B</em>. In addition, we also identified genes related to ossification, such as <em>NLE1, W5P5S7_SHEEP, COL1A1, TCIRG1, GIT1, W5P1A2_SHEEP </em>and <em>BCL</em>. The results of the present study provide information to help understand the genetic architecture of growth traits in sheep, their possible impacts on productive traits, and future investigations, being especially useful for researchers interested in structural variations in the sheep genome.</p> Cleyce Maiara Cardoso, Marina Bueno Mioto, Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza, Ana Claudia Freitas, Claudia Cristina Paro de Paz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1875 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Analysis of The Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Resin Oil From Pepper of the Genus Capsicum http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1876 <p>The peppers of the genus Capsicum belong to the Solanaceae family, compose of around 35 species all told. Of these, there are only five domesticated species: C. pubescens, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. annuum. The fruits (peppers) have a characteristic pungency, due to the presence of capsaicinoids, especially capsaicin. Its use can be an excellent alternative to inhibit the development of certain superbugs, since the indiscriminate use of antibiotics to treat infections promotes the resistance of these microorganisms, causing a serious problem, since it considerably increases the risk of mortality. Hence, there is a greater need to employ natural compounds to combat these superbugs, so it is of fundamental importance to analyze in detail the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of resin oils from different species of the genus Capsicum due to their bactericidal potential. The objective of the present work was to quantify the concentration of capsaicin and to determine the antimicrobial activity of the resin oils of 12 accessions of pepper of four species available in the Active Germplasm Bank of the IFES, Alegre Campus (C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. annuum). Regarding plant material, the selected accessions were: IFES63 and IFES105 (C. annuum); IFES60, IFES71, and IFES85 (C. baccatum); IFES56, IFES62 and IFES91 (C. chinense); IFES86, IFES96, IFES100 and IFES104 (C. frutescens). The work was divided into four stages, namely: conducting the experiment in the field (Agroecology sector of the Institution); determination of the antimicrobial activity (Biotechnology Laboratory); extraction of resin oils; and evaluation of the chemical composition (these last two stages took place in the Applied Chemistry Laboratory). Initially, the pepper fruits were collected, dehydrated, and crushed. They were later used in the extraction process, in which the Soxhlet method was used, with the aid of 99.8% ethyl alcohol (organic solvent), to obtain resin oils. The evaluation of the chemical composition (capsaicin quantification) of the oils was carried out through UV-VIS spectrophotometry with the aid of a Cary 60 UV-Vis spectrometer from Agilent Technologies. The methodology used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the oils was disc diffusion, using the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium and analysis under different concentrations (100%; 50%; 25%; 12.5%, and 6.25%) of the diluted essential oils in 99.8% ethyl alcohol. Among the 12 accessions of the four pepper species, both in the determination of the antimicrobial activity and the concentration of capsaicin, accession IFES56, belonging to the species C. chinense, exhibited the lowest values (with a variation from 7.76 to 10.99 mm of halo formed and 97.82 mg of capsaicin per g of extract). Accession IFES71, which belongs to C. baccatum, showed the highest values (with a variation from 13.65 to 17.80 mm of halo formed and 419.79 capsaicin per g of extract). Thus, it is possible to infer that these 12 accessions can be used in future crop improvement programs, especially accessions IFES71 and IFES100, since they demonstrated potential use as bactericides, due to their high concentration of capsaicin and also excellent antimicrobial activity.</p> João Carlos Cansian Junior, Vinicius Alves Porto Rodrigues, Lorena Souza Rittberg Mauricio, Bárbara Caetano Ferreira, Monique Moreira Moulin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1876 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Morphometric Characterization of Goats in the Southern Region of Espírito Santo http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1877 <p>Goat farming is an important socioeconomic and environmental activity in disadvantaged areas, vital for the livelihood of many farmers and the Brazilian economy in general. This sector has great potential for increased exploitation. However, there is little knowledge and work to characterize and raise awareness about the genetic groups in the country. Thus, learning about the biometrics of a genetic group contributes to the definition of this group, especially the purpose of its size and fitness, serving as a basis for the differentiation of groups. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphometric measurements according to the genetic groups of goats in the southern region of Espírito Santo state. We used 46 adult goats from three municipalities (Castelo, Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Muniz Freire) in southern Espírito Santo, with the following genetic groups: Anglonubian, Saanen, Parda Alpina, and mixed breed. Morphometric variables of a quantitative nature were measured: Sternal Height (SH), Sacral Region Height (SRH), Body Length (BL), Thoracic Perimeter (TP), Croup Width (CW), Croup Length (CL), Shin Perimeter (SP), Ear Size (ES), Face Width (FW), Head Width (HW), and Head Length (HL). The measurements were made with a tape measure and hipometer on the right side, with the animal kept well positioned in the station. Data were tabulated according to genetic groups, and means were compared using the SNK test. The mean morphometric values did not differ statistically (P&gt;0.05) for SH, BL, TP, CW, CL, FW, HW, and HL. The Anglonubian genetic group showed a higher mean for SRH (73±6.6), SP (10±1.10), and ES (24±3.2), followed respectively by Saanen (70.5±5.5; 8.6±0.9; 20±3.4), mixed breed (67.2±4.3; 8.8±0.75; 16.7±3.3) and Parda Alpina (65.5±5.5; 8.8±0.8; 15.8±2.4). The mixed breed showed less standardization due to the significant variation of the genetic groups used for crossbreeding. We recommend that the variables SRH, SP and ES be maintained in future studies because they showed significant differences between the genetic groups analyzed. Few studies have investigated the morphometric pattern in goats in the region, and new research is needed with a larger sample size to better understand the animals raised in the south of the state.</p> Jéssica Delesposte Destefani, Ida Rúbia Machado Moulin, Aparecida de Fátima Madella de Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1877 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Morpho-Agronomic Evaluation of Regrowth of Silage Sorghum Genotypes For Recommendation in the Southern Capixaba Region http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1879 <p>Silage sorghum has proved to be a formidable alternative for use as animal feed since the Brazilian production of grains and silage depends almost exclusively on rainfall in the growing regions. This crop shows potential for cultivation in adverse climate and soil conditions, thus being able to reduce the impact of this factor on the supply of animal feed in times of drought. For Brazil agriculture and livestock breeding, it is strategically important to have an area occupied with sorghum, since it facilitates obtaining raw material for silage production and generates yet another source of income to sustain family farmers, because the crop does not have high water demand and is easy to handle. The objective of this work was to evaluate 25 sorghum genotypes to recommend cultivars adapted to the soil and climate conditions of the Caparaó Capixaba region. The different genetic materials from the Embrapa sorghum breeding program were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. The plots were divided into two rows five meters long and 0.70 meters apart. The experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions. The following morpho-agronomic and production traits were evaluated: days to flowering, number of days elapsed from planting to the point where 50% of the plants in the plot are flowering; initial stand (number of plants per usable area of the plot); plant height; number of sick plants; total plant weight; stem weight, leaf weight, and panicle weight. For the selection of genotypes, analysis of variance and the F test were performed at 5% probability. Subsequently, the Scott-Knott test of the means was used at 5% probability. Considering the importance of the interaction of the genotype with the environment, this work proved to be relevant, because for all the morpho-agronomic and production traits of silage sorghum, there was a significant difference, indicating that each genotype behaved differently in the region studied. These results showed that the cultivation of forage sorghum under the soil and climate conditions in the Caparaó Capixaba region is possible and indicated that the genotypes T5, T6, T7, T9, T11, T17, T18, T19, T20, and T21 stood out due to their high production, earlier flowering, and reduced number of sick plants.</p> Simone Wellita Simão de Carvalho, Natália Cassa, Sebastião Carlos Paes de Assis, Layra Cortes da Silva, Nayara Norrene Lacerda Durães, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella, Ana Paula Cândido Gabriel Berilli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1879 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Perception of Small Farmers Concerning Sustainable Agriculture in Santarém, Pará http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1874 <p>In recent years, there have been changes in how society uses raw materials, food, and non-renewable natural resources. This stems in particular from population growth, which makes it necessary to practice environmental conservation and increase productivity. Sustainable food production has been the subject of several debates, but these often do not reach small farmers. In this sense, this work evaluated, through an electronic questionnaire, producers’ knowledge about the term sustainability and whether they carry out sustainable activities on their properties. First, contact was made with some regional farmers, the purpose of the survey was explained, and a questionnaire was sent to those who agreed. Information was initially collected from 13 farmers in some locations in the Lower Amazon, Pará State. The questionnaire was sent between April and June 2022. It was structured with 22 questions using the Google forms tool. Data about socioeconomic aspects (name, telephone, age, sex, education), property size, production income, participation in agro-ecological and cooperative fairs, receipt of consultancy and/or assistance, knowledge about sustainable agriculture and its limitations were analyzed. There were also questions about soil quality and management and water supply. Initially, these first respondents were small farmers, and they had small production, mainly used for their own consumption; 92.3% of the producers said they do not sell at fairs, and 100% of the respondents were not members of a cooperative and did not receive any promotion or qualified assistance. The main results point out that, about general notions of sustainable agriculture, the farmers showed a high level of knowledge on the subject. This was probably due to the level of education of the interviewees: 61.5% had higher education. About the use of chemical fertilizers, 84.6% reported not using them, and for insect control, 92.3% did not use pesticides. When asked about crop-livestock integration, 46.2% did not adopt it on their property. Most of them expressed interest in making their property fully sustainable but did not know how to do it. In other words, sustainable farming plays an important role for society in the social, economic and environmental aspects, and can be practiced by farmers in a positive and beneficial way, provided that means are provided on how to proceed in practice.</p> Aline Pacheco, Eliene Monique Dias Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1874 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Evaluation of Water Consumption by Dorper Lambs in Relation to Age Group http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1906 <p>Studies of meat production systems mostly have not focused on water intake, and are even scarcer in the case of sheep farming. However, among the elements that make up an animal diet, water is the most important and its consumption can be influenced by the feed, environment, stress, age and other factors. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate water consumption in age groups. The work was carried out at the Sheep Unit of the Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ) in Nova Odessa, SP, with 26 registered uncastrated Dorper lambs with an average age of 102.30 ± 16.30 days and average weight of&nbsp; 26.10 ± 4.14 kg, respectively. The experiment involved collective confinement for 60 days, with 15 days of adaptation. The water consumption was quantified using two automatic drinking troughs (Intergado® system). The total diet was offered ad libitum, with 88.44% dry matter, composed of 15% crude fiber and 16.21% crude protein.The animals were divided according to the entrance age in the test (AG), as a function of the mean ± 0.5*standard deviation. The numbers of animals in each AG were 9, 8 and 9, respectively, for AG1 (84 to 114 days of age), AG2 (120 to 126 days), and AG3 (133 to 156 days). The Tukey test at 5% significance was used (SAS). The means observed in the AG1 (2.02 ± 0.604 L), AG2 (2.45 ± 0.572 L), and AG3 (2.42 ± 0.558 L), did not differ from each other (p&gt;0.05), with a general average of 2.29 ± 0.591 liters of water consumed/day. Therefore, the age group at the ages of the lambs in this study did not affect water consumption. More studies on the use of water in production systems should be carried out to devise strategies for more efficient use.</p> Mayara Isaias Vargas, Silas Oliveira Cavalcante, Natana Mendes Marques, Ana Flávia Bastos Ongaro, Rafael Franco Bernardi, Nathalya Sanchez, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1906 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Forced-Molting Using Alternative Feeds to Improve the Welfare of Laying Hens http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1855 <p>Commercial laying hens are kept in production until approximately 80 weeks of life, when the first production cycle usually ends, after which they are often discarded due to the decrease in the number of eggs produced and shell quality. However, in situations of high demand for eggs in the market, high feed prices and delays in the supply of one-day-old chicks by hatcheries lead producer to prolong the laying lifetime of birds. The technique used for this purpose is forced molting, which aims to make the reproductive system of the bird rest for a period and then regenerate its productive capacity. This can increase the useful lifetime of laying hens for another 25 to 30 weeks, in addition to improving the quality of the eggs and reducing the level of losses due to poor shell quality. This process induces the loss of feathers, with subsequent growth of new feathers and rapid resumption of egg production, which should take at most 6 to 8 weeks. The best-known forced molting procedure is the fasting method (total feed deprivation for a period of at least 9 days). Fasting as a stimulator of forced molting is a controversial practice due to animal welfare concerns, and has been widely questioned, generating criticism of the current system adopted. In this way, new techniques of forced molting have are being developed to reduce the stress generated in the birds, such as administration of alternative feeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the replacement of fasting with provision of alternative feeds, in order to improve the welfare of the birds through the use of less aggressive technique.&nbsp; Seventy-two heavy laying hens of the Hy-Line W-80 strain, with 105 weeks of age at the beginning of forced molting, were evaluated. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, divided into six treatments with 12 replications each (n=72): T1-conventional forced molting (fasting); T2- provision of standard feed ad libitum throughout the forced molting period; T3-provision of rice bran ad libitum during forced molting; T4-provision of wheat bran ad libitum during forced molting; T5- provision of coarse-grained limestone ad libitum during forced molting; and T6- provision of ground alfalfa ad libitum during forced molting. Data on the decrease in egg production during forced molting were analyzed by mixed models (SASr), including the fixed effects of treatment, day and treatment x day interaction, while the bird/animal effect was used as the random effect. Means were compared by the Tukey test (P&lt;0.05). There were significant effects of treatment, day and treatment x day interaction. The means of treatment 2 differed significantly from all the other treatments, which did not differ from each other. We found that birds submitted to fasting (Treat 1) presented laying interruption at 7 days, followed by treatments 3 and 6 (8 days) and 4 and 5 (9 days), but treatment 2, with provision of standard feed ad libitum, did not cause laying interruption. Our results demonstrate that the substitution of alternative feeds such as rice bran (3), ground alfalfa (6), wheat bran (4) and limestone (5) can be an alternative to fasting in the forced molting period, achieving interruption of egg production within the expected period and providing better well-being than fasting.</p> Hiago Polli, Jose Evandro de Moraes, Rodrigo Giglioti, Gustavo Amorim de Campos, Carla Cachoni Pizzolante, Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1855 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Stocking Rates of Nellore Steers in Intensively Managed Pastures and Silvopastoral Systems in Southeast Brazil During Backgrounding http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1856 <p>The adjustment of stocking rates of production systems is a technique used to increase animal productivity per area, by defining the availability of forage mass per animal in a predefined time. This study evaluated the effects of stocking rates in different intensive animal production systems, including an integrated system with Brazilian native trees. The experiment was carried out from September 2019 to September 2020 at Embrapa Southeast Livestock, São Carlos, SP, Brazil. Thirty Nellore steers (375 ± 30 kg live weight; 22 ± 23 months old) were randomly distributed in five treatments, with two replicates: 1) intensively managed and irrigated Megathyrsus maximus cv. Tanzânia pasture with a high stocking rate, overseeded in the dry season with Avena byzantina and Lolium multiflorum (IHS); 2) intensively managed pasture of rainfed M. maximus cv. Tanzânia with high stocking rate (RHS); 3) intensively managed rainfed pasture with a mix of Urochloa decumbens cv. Basilisk and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu with a moderate stocking rate (RMS); 4) intensively managed silvopastoral system with U. decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture and Brazilian native trees (345 trees ha-1), with a moderate stocking rate (LFS); and 5) extensively managed degraded pasture with a mix of U. brizantha cv. Marandu and U. decumbens cv. Basilisk, with a low stocking rate (DP). All pastures were submitted to stocking rate adjustments using the "put and take" technique. Grazing was continuous in DP and rotational in IHS, RHS, RMS and LFS, with grazing cycles of 36 days (intermittently grazed, with three days of occupation and 33 days of rest). All pastures, except DP (2.0 ha), received liming and corrective fertilization with P, K, S, and micronutrients. Pastures in IHS and RHS (1.8 ha each) were fertilized, respectively, with 600 and 400 kg N ha-1 year-1. Pastures in RMS and LFS (3.1 and 3.5 ha, respectively) received 200 kg N ha-1 year-1. Animals were weighed at regular intervals of approximately 28 days during the experimental period to evaluate the number of animal units (AU = 450 kg live body weight) per area (AU ha-1). The average stocking rate was calculated according to the area, total number of days of the experimental period and for the four seasons of the year. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and comparison of means by the Fisher test at 5%, using the PROC MIXED of SAS. Interaction was observed between treatments and seasons (P≤.0001). In spring, a higher stocking rate was observed in IHS (3.63 AU ha-1), followed by RMS, DP and RHS (1.83, 1.81 and 1.73 AU ha-1, respectively) with similar (P&gt;0.05) values, while LFS (1.04 AU ha-1) presented the lowest value. In summer, with the highest forage mass availability, the stocking rate increased in all systems: IHS (8.91 AU ha-1) was able to maintain the highest value, followed by RHS (6.07 AU ha-1), RMS (3.02 AU ha-1), while LFS and DP (2.45 and 2.29 AU ha-1, respectively) presented the lowest and similar values. In autumn, IHS and RHS (5.85 and 5.60 AU ha-1, respectively) presented the highest and similar values, followed by RMS (3.72 AU ha-1), DP (2.51 AU ha-1), and by LFS (1.02 AU ha-1). In winter, IHS and RHS (2.91 and 2.83 AU ha-1, respectively) continued to present the highest and similar values, followed by DP and RMS (1.78 and 1.70 AU ha-1, respectively) with intermediate and similar values, while LFS (0.74 AU ha-1) continued to present the lowest value. We concluded that the more intensive systems allowed higher stocking rates in relation to the DP system, considering the forage mass availability in the different seasons of the year. In the LFS system, the competition for natural resources (light and water) between the system’s components (pasture and trees), in addition to low temperatures and soil moisture during the dry period (autumn and winter seasons), determined the low stocking rates observed.</p> Rolando Pasquini Neto, Annelise Aila Gomes Lobo, Gabriele Voltareli da Silva, Lucas Avilé Colosso, André de Faria Pedroso, Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1856 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Correlation of Zoometric Indices and Morphometric Measurements in Dorper Lambs http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1857 <p>Many studies have been conducted to identify animals with good ability for meat production. In this respect, morphometric measurements and zoometric indices are important tools to select many characteristics aiming at animal genetic improvement, increasing the profitability and sustainability of animal production. This study was carried out at the Sheep Unit of the Instituto de Zootecnia in Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of correlating zoometric indices and morphometric measurements in Dorper lambs. We used 26 registered uncastrated male lambs, with mean age of 102.30 ± 16.30 days and mean weight of 26.10 ± 4.14 kg. The weight was measured with mechanical scale and morphometric measurements were performed with a tape measure and a hypometer. The morphometric measurements collected were withers height (HW), rump height (HR), body length (BL), thoracic perimeter (TP) and rump width (RW). The zoometric indices were calculated by the morphometric measurements body index (BI), relative body index (RBI), thoracic perimeter-withers height ratio (TPRI), and body capacity index (BCI). Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained using the average of morphometric measurements and zoometric indices, through the SAS software (Statistics Analyses System). The averages for HW, HR, BL, TP and RW were 52.65 ± 2.68 cm, 52.19 ± 2.75 cm, 59.83 ± 2.83 cm, 70.13 ± 4.71 cm, 25.43 ± 2.15 cm respectively. The values of the indices were 85.49 ± 4.12 %, 113.81 ± 6.14 %, 133.36 ± 8.90 % and 46.35 ± 5,45 kg/cm for BI, RBI, TPRI and BCI respectively. There was medium-high correlation (p&lt;0.05) of withers height and BI (r = - 0.59), TPRI (r= 0.61), and BCI (r= - 0.44), respectively. Rump height also showed correlation (p&lt;0.05) with BI (r= -0.45), RBI (r= 0.49) and BCI (r= -0.42). At the same rate, body length showed positive medium-high correlations (p&lt;0.05) with BI (r=0.52) and RBI (r=0.49). There was a high correlation coefficient also (p&lt;0.0001) for thoracic perimeter and TPRI (r = 0.85), and BCI (r = 0.40). The results obtained confirmed that zoometric indices and morphometric measurements are correlated and important to apply for characterization of the sheep herds, providing important data for selection and animal genetic improvement, an important factor for production intensification.</p> Rafael Franco Bernardi, Marcelo Moretin Vieira, Nathalya Sanchez, Mayara Isaias Vargas, Natana Mendes Marques, Silas Oliveira Cavalcante, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1857 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Derivatives of Purines and Nitrogen Compounds in Confined Lambs http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1858 <p>Purine derivatives (DP) originate from two sources, purines absorbed in the small intestine and endogenous purines, i.e., those released from nucleic acid metabolism, accurately reflecting ruminal microbial activity. In sheep, the absorbed purines can enter the liver unchanged and be made available for incorporation into tissue nucleic acids inn a process known as salvation or recovery. Both recovery and enzymatic degradation pathways are very active and compete for substrates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spot urine collection method for estimation of purine derivatives and nitrogen compounds in confined lambs. Four male rumen-fistulated sheep were used, with mean initial age of 18 months and mean initial BW of 50 kg. The sheep were randomly assigned to four metabolic cages. The experimental design used was 4 x 4 Latin square (4 treatments and 4 periods/repetitions). Total urine collection was performed during three consecutive days, from the 9th to the 12th day of each experimental period. The urine produced throughout the day was collected in plastic buckets containing 100 mL of H2SO4 at 20% concentration, to avoid losses of nitrogenous compounds from the urine by volatilization and the bacterial destruction of purine derivatives. PD excretion was obtained by summing the amounts of allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine excreted in the urine. The amount of absorbed microbial purines (X, mmol/day) was estimated from the excretion of DPT (Y, mmol/day), through the equation Y= 0.84X + (0.150 PV0, 75 e-0.25X), and the analyses were carried out using the R statistical program. The values estimated via spot collection of allantoin (mmol/day), uric acid (mmol/day) and xanthine-hypoxanthine (mmol /day) differed (P&lt;0.05) from the values obtained via total collection in all groups of evaluated collection times. For more accurate results of purine derivatives, the total collection method is the most recommended. The estimated values via spot collection of DPT differed (P&lt;0.05) from the values obtained via total collection in all groups and evaluated collection times. Chen et al. (1992) observed variations in urinary creatinine and DP concentrations throughout the day, but the observed creatinine concentration variations were similar to the observed variations for PD excretion. The absence of the effect of the time of collection on the DP:creatinine ratio has great practical application, indicating that spot urine sampling can be used to calculate the DP excretion at any time of day. In the present study, the urinary ratio between DP:creatine showed an average excretion of 1.98. Silva Junior (2014), in a study of grazing cattle, found an average DP:creatinine ratio of 1.48, with no effect (P&gt;0.05) of treatments, collection days and collection period on that ratio. We can recommend carrying out spot urine collection at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding to estimate urinary volume, production of purine derivatives and estimates of intestinal flow of microbial N due to divergence of results between spot urine collection times compared to total collection.</p> Juliana A. Vieira, Darcilene M. de Figueiredo, Gabriel B. Pacheco, Gabriel Machado Dallago, Katharine K. de Azevedo, D´arc Elly P. Oliveira, Ana Laurinda M. Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1858 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Evaluation of The Body Weight Gain and Feed Consumption of Dorper Lambs With Different Ages – Partial Results of Feed Efficiency Tests http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1859 <p>Feed efficiency tests of sheep are important tools to select the best rams and ewes, and should be a prerequisite in breeding programs. However, there are uncertainties about the influence of lamb age amplitude at entrance in efficiency tests. This experiment focused on evaluating whether the initial age in the test, with a difference of 72 days of age between the lambs, can influence the parameters of feed consumption (CONS) and mean daily weight gain (DWG). The study was conducted at the Sheep Unit of the Instituto de Zootecnia de Nova Odessa, SP. Twenty-six uncastrated male Dorper lambs, with ages and initial weights of 123 ± 16.30 days and 27.81 ± 4.20 kg, respectively, were used. After 15 days of adaptation to the feed and environment, the lambs remained for 45 days in collective confinement, with total diet ad libitum, being offered in nine automatic feeder stations monitored by the Intergado® recording system. The animals were divided according to the entrance age in the test, being separated into three age groups (AG), as a function of the mean ± 0.5*standard deviation. The numbers of animals in the AGs were 9, 8 and 9, respectively, for AG1 (84 to 114 days), AG2 (120 to 126 days) and AG3 (133 to 156 days). According to the AG, the means of the characteristics CONS and DWG were submitted to the Tukey test at 5% probability, using the SAS program. Average consumption did not differ (p&gt;0.05) between AG1(1.02 ± 0.170 kg), AG2 (1.24 ± 0.252 kg) and AG3 (1.22 ± 0.317 kg). Likewise, the averages of DWG were not different from each other (AG1= 0.277 ± 0.088 kg; AG2= 0.343 ± 0.072 kg; AG3= 0.348 ± 0.052 kg). We concluded that the difference of 72 days of age for entry of lambs in the feed efficiency test is adequate, not interfering with food consumption and daily weight gain of the animals, under the experimental conditions evaluated.</p> Mayara Isaias Vargas, Natana Mendes Marques, Heloísa Gonçalves Pinto, Silas Oliveira Cavalcante, Rafael Franco Bernardi, Nathalya Sanchez, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1859 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Evaluation of Morphometric Measurements of Dorper Lambs of Different Age Groups http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1860 <p>Morphometric measurements are easy tools to adopt for characterization of breeds, as well to select the best animals for breeding. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the morphology of Dorper lambs of different age groups. The study was conducted at Sheep Unit of the Instituto de Zootecnia, located in Nova Odessa, SP. A total of 26 registered uncastrated male lambs from nine sheep farms in three different states (São Paulo, 7; Santa Catarina, 1; Paraná, 1) were used. The average age was 102.30 ± 16.30 days and average body weight was 26.10 ± 4.14 kg. Initially, the animals were weighed (kg) and then 13 morphometric traits were measured: withers height (WH), rump height (RH), withers depth (WD), rump depth (RD), chest width (CW), withers width (WW), rump width (RW), body length (BL), chest girth (CG), rump girth (RG), shoulder girth (SG), leg girth (LG) and scrotal circumference (SC). The lambs were separated into three age groups, divided according to ± 0.5* age standard deviation: AG1 (67 to 93 days, n = 9), AG2 (99 to 105 days, n = 8) and AG3 (112 to 135 days, n = 9). The effect of age group was used to compare the morphometric measurements by the Tukey test at 5% significance (SAS). No significant differences were identified according to the age groups. However, some measures of the AG3 group had lower values (CW = 23.42 ± 1.70; WW = 23.65 ± 1.60; RW = 25.82 ± 1.79; BL = 59.45 ± 2.97; CG = 69.33 ± 4.5; RG = 69.45 ± 4.47; and SG = 23.73 ± 1.34; LG = 36.47 ± 3.58), although the lambs were older. Therefore, the morphometric characterization of Dorper lambs did not differ using a 72-day interval.</p> Natana Mendes Marques, Mayara Isaias Vargas, Silas Oliveira Cavalcante, Rafael Franco Bernardi, Nathalya Sanchez, Marcelo Moretin Vieira, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1860 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Dry Matter Intake of Nellore Steers in Different Pasture Production Systems Compared to Cajanus Cajan Legume-Grass Mixed Pasture http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1861 <p>Brazil has one of the largest pasture areas for livestock on the planet, and estimates of dry matter intake (DMI) are necessary for adequate nutritional plans to improve animal performance. This study evaluated the dry matter intake (DMI) of <em>Nellore</em> cattle in different production systems, including a <em>Cajanus cajan</em> legume-grass mixed pasture. The experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of Embrapa Southeast Livestock, São Carlos, SP, Brazil, in two seasons of 2021: rainy (January) and dry (July). Eighteen <em>Nellore</em> steers (approximately 445 ± 44 kg and 15 ± 16 months old) were randomly distributed in three treatments with three replications (1.5 ha each): 1) degraded pasture of <em>Urochloa decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk (DEG); 2) mixture of grasses and legumes, <em>U. decumbens</em> Stapf cv. Basilisk, <em>U. brizantha</em> Stapf cv. Marandu and <em>Cajanus cajan</em> cv. BRS Mandarin (MIX); and 3) pasture with a mixture of <em>U. decumbens</em> cv. Basilisk and <em>U. brizantha</em> cv. Marandu with liming, P, K, S, micronutrient fertilization of 200 kg N-urea ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>; and three applications of 66.7 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> every 60 days in the rainy season (REC). All pastures were grazed by <em>Nellore</em> cattle and submitted to stocking rate adjustments using the “put and take” technique. The animals received 15 g of the titanium dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) orally for nine consecutive days. Feces were collected at 6:00 a.m. by spontaneous defecation during four days after the beginning of TiO<sub>2</sub> administration until the tenth day. Daily the samples were frozen, and at the end of the experimental period were dried in a forced-air oven (65 ºC - 72 h), ground to 1 mm in a Wiley mill and analyzed by ICP-OES (Thermo iCAP 6000 series - Dual View Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). The statistical model considered treatment, season and treatment x season interaction as fixed effects. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (PROC MIXED) and means were compared by the Fisher test at 5%. Significance (P = 0.0168) was observed for treatment x season interaction. The DMI (kg of DM day<sup>-1</sup>) in the rainy season presented values of 11.8, 10.0 and 13.8, and in the dry season 4.9, 7.8 and 4.7 for DEG, MIX and REC, respectively. In the dry season, the MIX treatment differed significantly from the others.&nbsp; In the rainy season, the MIX was different from the REC, while the DEG treatment showed no difference in relation to REC and MIX. In the dry season, <em>Cajanus cajan</em> consumption was higher than the other treatments. This behavior can be explained by the greater availability of forage mass and the inferior quality of the grass and by the grazing behavior of the animals, which consumed more legume as the dry season extended.</p> Althieres José Furtado, Jaqueline Fernandes Bruno, Rolando Pasquini Neto, Flavio Perna Junior, Patrícia Perondi Anchão Oliveira, Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1861 Mon, 19 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effect of the Replacement of Crude Protein With Urea in Serum for Supply of Nitrogen to Lambs http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1862 <p>The metabolic challenge imposed by the intensification of animal production can cause an imbalance between the body's demand for nutrients on the one hand, and the ability to metabolize them and the level of production sought on the other hand. Urea is an option as a supplementary source of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in sheep diets due to its low cost, plentiful availability and ease of use. The blood serum urea nitrogen (SUN) content has been measured to obtain additional information about the protein nutrition of ruminants, through the metabolic response to a given diet. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of increasing levels of urea in the diet of confined lambs to replace the crude protein in the concentrated feed. Thirty-two crossbred lambs were used, with average initial body weight of 29 kg and average initial age of 5 months. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design using a 2 x 4 factorial scheme: 2 sexes (male and female) and 4 levels of urea inclusion: 0%; 1.5%; 3.0% and 4.5% urea based on total diet. The analyses were carried out using the R statistical program, to perform multiple comparison of means using the Tukey test at 5% probability and linear regression. All feed samples were submitted to chemical analysis. From the 47th to the 52nd day of the experiment, to determine serum N-urea, blood samples were collected by jugular vein puncture, at 0h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h after feeding at 7:00 am. The blood samples were immediately centrifuged at 4250 rpm for 15 minutes and the resulting serum was frozen (-20 ºC). Blood samples were collected at different times after feeding during the 5 days of the experiment, with a collection being performed on each day of the period. The concentration of N-urea in the blood serum was obtained through the product of the concentration of urea in the plasma and 0.466, corresponding to the N content in the urea. Interactions between sex and time of blood collection after feeding, as well as between level of urea inclusion and collection time were significant (P&lt;0.05) for SUN values. Regarding the time after feeding, greater variability was observed between the collection times in male animals (σ̂ = 4.11) than in female animals (σ̂ = 3.26). Greater variability was observed among females (σ̂ = 1.81) than among males (σ̂ = 0.91). A quadratic effect was observed between SUN and collection times for both male and female animals. The peak SUN values after feeding occurred at 2:03 a.m. for females and at 2:50 a.m. for males. No effect (P&gt;0.05) was observed for SUN considering the increasing levels of urea in the diet. Among the SUN levels at each collection time, the treatment with a level of 0.0% urea inclusion (0%RH) was associated with a higher concentration of SUN at the collection time 2 hours after feeding in relation to the concentration at the collection time 8 hours after feeding. In the supply of the 4.5%RH diet, a higher value of SUN was observed at the times 2h and 4h after feeding in relation to the times 0h and 8h. The treatments with urea levels of 3.0% and 4.5% had the highest concentration of SUN at the collection time 2h after feeding. In general, values of SUN at 0 and 8h were less than at 4 and 6h, and these were lower than at 2h. No increase in SUN concentrations was observed as the PDR&nbsp; level increased, as expected, which can be explained by the fact that the animals were able to use a good part of the N consumed. The inclusion of up to 4.5% urea/ammonium sulfate (9:1) in relation to the dry matter of the diets to replace the crude protein in the concentrate for confined lambs did not compromise the productive performance of the animals.</p> Juliana A. Vieira, Darcilene M. de Figueiredo, Gabriel B. Pacheco, Gabriel Machado Dallago, Katharine K. de Azevedo, D´arc Elly P. Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1862 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Assessment of weight gain of crossbred heifers fed diets containing different proportions of wheat silage http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1865 <p>Wheat cultivation for silage production is not a conventional practice in Brazil, but it can be an beneficial innovation for forage production in the offseason, with high nutritional quality and production cost lower than that of corn silage, making it an interesting alternative for animal production. The Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais (EPAMIG) developed a wheat cultivar, MGS Brilhante, which does not have a canopy and adapts well to different regions of the state. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the weight gain of crossbred heifers kept in confinement and fed with different proportions of wheat silage (WT) and corn silage in the diet. The research was conducted in the Experimental Center of Sertãozinho of EPAMIG, in the municipality of Patos de Minas, Minas Gerais. Four diets were tested: 0% (WT0), 33% (WT33), 67% (WT67) and 100% (WT100) wheat silage addition. Twenty heifers with average age of 18 months were evaluated during 105 days, and weighing was performed on five dates, with average intervals of 21 days (WG1, WG2, WG3, WG4 and WG5). The design adopted was randomized blocks, with four treatments and five animals per treatment, totaling 20 experimental plots. All data were submitted to analysis of variance and were considered significant at the 5% probability, and then compared by the Tukey test. All statistical analyses were performed using the SISVAR 5.6 software. The results showed significant differences (P&lt;0.05) between all measures of weight gain and the treatments tested. In the first weighing, WT100 presented the highest average weight gain (1.336 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by WT67, WT33 and WT0.&nbsp; In the second weighing, WT100 also had the greatest average weight gain (1.223 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by WT33, WT0 and WT67. In the third weighing WT0 presented the highest average weight gain (1.109 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by WT100, WT33 and WT67. In the fourth weighing, WT33 presented the highest average weight gain (1.211 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by WT100, WT0 and WT67. In the last weighing, WT33 presented the highest average weight gain (1.087 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by WT0, WT100 and WT67. It is important to note that at the end of the experiment, the quality of the silage was impaired due to poor storage and excess moisture. The positive results of the treatment containing exclusively wheat silage (WT100) in the first weighing and its good classifications in the subsequent weighings suggest that the addition of wheat silage in animal feed can be efficient for weight gain, as long as the adequate quality of the feed offered is maintained. To become a good alternative for animal production, future studies of the economic aspects of this silage should be carried out.</p> Ana Cláudia de Freitas, Maurício Antônio de Oliveira Coelho, Clenderson Corradi de Mattos Gonçalves, Edilane Aparecida da Silva, Marcio de Souza Bastos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1865 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments using wheat silage http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1866 <p>The Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais (EPAMIG) has developed a wheat cultivar, MGS Brilhante, which does not have a canopy, and has become an interesting alternative for animal production. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the weight gain of crossbred bull calves kept in confinement and fed with different proportions of wheat and corn silage in the diet. The research was conducted in the Experimental Center of Sertãozinho of EPAMIG, in the municipality of Patos de Minas, Minas Gerais. The tested diets had different levels of wheat silage addition: 0% (T1), 33% (T2), 67% (T3) and 100% (T4). During 105 days, 20 calves with average age of 18 were evaluated. The weight gain was measured on five dates, with average intervals of 21 days. Four treatments and five animals per treatment were utilized, totaling 20 experimental plots, in randomized blocks. All data were submitted to analysis of, with significance of 5%, and were compared by the Tukey test. All statistical analyses were performed using the SISVAR 5.6 software. The results showed significant difference (P&lt;0.05) between all measures of weight gain and the treatments tested. In the first weighing, T3 presented the highest average weight gain (1.545 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T2, T4 and T1.&nbsp; In the second weighing, T3 also had the greatest average weight gain (1.330 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T4, T2 and T1. In the third weighing, T3 again presented the highest average weight gain (1.287 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T1, T2 and T4. In the fourth weighing, T1 presented the highest average weight gain (1.400 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T3, T2 and T4. In the last weighing, T1 presented the highest average weight gain (1.219 kg day<sup>-1</sup>), followed by T3, T2 and T4. In the first weighing, the animals that received a diet containing high percentage of wheat silage (67% - T3) had the highest weight gains. Even though not having the biggest gain in the last to weighings, T3 still had the second largest weight gain. These results confirm that wheat silage, when well prepared and stored, can be offered as a good source of nutrients in animal diets, with lower production cost than that of corn silage in the offseason.</p> Ana Cláudia de Freitas, Maurício Antônio de Oliveira Coelho, Clenderson Corradi de Mattos Gonçalves, Edilane Aparecida da Silva, Marcio de Souza Bastos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1866 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Spot urine collection method to estimate creatinine levels in in confined lambs http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1868 <p>The spot sampling method is based on creatinine concentration in the sample, as a representative of its concentration in the total urine excreted within 24 hours. The estimated daily creatinine excretion of an animal is, based on equations developed by different authors, which presuppose that creatinine excretion by body weight is constant or varies only slightly, depending on the animal's body protein content (amount of muscles). However, creatinine excretion per unit cannot be represented by a constant value for animals of different groups or genetic categories, raising doubts about the possibility of using creatinine excretion values obtained in a given study. Thus, many authors have suggested that the collection of an isolated sample, called a spot sample, can simplify the estimation of urine production. To this end, four male sheep fistulated in the rumen were analyzed, with age of 18 months and initial average body weight of 50 kg. The animals were randomly distributed in four metabolic cages. The experimental design used was 4 x 4 Latin square (4 treatments and 4 periods/repetitions), for a total of 52 collections. Spot collection was conducted at five times after feeding (0h; 2h; 4h; 6h and 8h). These urine collections were established on the 13th day of each experimental period. All possible clusters of spot collections were tested. The urine spot collection method involves sampling strategies to establish a reliable protocol to estimate synthesis and excretion by sheep. Creatine excretion, urinary volume, total purine derivatives, absorbed purines, microbial compound flow and microbial synthesis efficiency through total urine collection were determined by chemical analysis. Average statistics were calculated by the R software. The adjusted averages for each spot collection time, as well as the average spot collection and all possible combinations between the time of spot collection were compared to the adjusted averages of total collection. The creatinine excretion value obtained through the total collection of urine did not differ (p&gt; 0.05) from the value estimated by the spot urine collection at 0h, 2h and 8h, with difference (p &lt;0.05) between collection times of 4h and 6h. The urinary volume obtained by total collection in relation to that estimated by spot collection differed (p &lt;0.05) for 4h and 6h after feeding. The average obtained for this parameter also differed for the following groups of collection according to times after feeding regarding total collection: 0h and 6h; 4h and 6h; 0h, 4h and 6h. When expressed as a function of PC, creatinine excretion decreased linearly at 0.000097 mmol/kg PC (p &lt;0.001) for each unit (kg) of PC increase. This behavior was associated with variation in the proportion of muscle tissue in growing animals. It might be that since the growth of muscle tissue in adult animals is less intense than in juveniles, and since creatinine comes from muscle tissue metabolism and is excreted proportionally to the metabolic activity, creatinine excretion as a function of PC varies less in adult animals. Spot urine collection is recommended at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding to estimate the urinary volume.</p> Juliana A. Vieira, Darcilene M. de Figueiredo, Gabriel B. Pacheco, Gabriel Machado Dallago, Luciana Navajas Rennó, Jannilson G. Barroso, Ana Laurinda M. Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1868 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Zoometric indices in dorper lambs of different age groups http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1869 <p>The zoometric indices can provide information related to the productivity of a herd. With these indices it is possible to classify the capacity for meat production and select the best animals for sustainable animal production. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate zoometric indices in Dorper lambs confined in different age groups. The study was carried out at the Sheep Unit of the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, SP, with 26 registered uncastrated male lambs, from nine farms in the states of São Paulo (7), Santa Catarina (1), and Paraná. (1), with mean age of 102.30 ± 16.30 days and mean weight of 26.10 ± 4.14 kg. The animals were separated into three age groups: group 1 (67 to 93 days, n=9), group 2 (99 to 105 days, n=8), group 3 (112 to 135 days of age, n=9). The animals were confined with access to a trough containing high concentration diet with 15% fiber. The averages of zoometric indices were obtained by morphometric measurements. The weight assessment was performed using a mechanical scale and morphometric measurements were performed with a tape measure and a hypometer. The following zoometric indices were calculated: body index (BI), relative body index (RBI), thoracic perimeter withers ratio (TPWR), and body capacity index (BCI). For normally distributed data, comparison of the means according to age groups was performed with the Tukey test at 5% probability (SAS). The zoometric indices showed no differences (p&gt;0.05) between age groups, with averages of BI (85.49% ± 4.12%), RBI (113.81% ± 6.14%), LBI (88.10% ± 4.70%), TPWR (133.36% ± 8.90%), and BCI (46.35 ± 5.45 kg/cm). The results showed no differences between age groups for zoometric indices, but the values obtained from the indices showed that the group was composed of animals classified as midline, with little leg development and good development of the thoracic region, allowing good meat production by Dorper lambs, reinforcing that zoometric indices are important to classify the functionality of a herd and select the best animals for sustainable production.</p> Rafael Franco Bernardi, Marcelo Moretin Vieira, Nathalya Sanchez, Mayara Isaias Vargas, Natana Mendes Marques, Silas Oliveira Cavalcante, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1869 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effectiveness of homeopathic complexes on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1867 <p>Gastrointestinal nematodeos are one of the biggest obstacles to sheep farming, requiring integrated control and prophylaxis measures. The indiscriminate use of synthetic anthelmintics can cause parasitic resistance. We hypothesized that pharmacological alternatives, such as homeopathy, can contribute to the control of nematodeos in sheep. This study thus evaluated the efficacy of three homeopathic complexes (HCs) for the control of worms in naturally infected sheep. The research was carried out at the sheep unit of the Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ) in Nova Odessa (SP), from April 18 to June 19, 2022. Ten grams of HCs (powder form) was mixed in 500 grams of concentrate and given daily to each animal in a common trough in a paddock with 10 animals. Each paddock corresponded to treatments 1, 2 and 3 (with HCs) and 4 (control, concentrate without HCs), totaling 40 ewes. The complexes were formulated with five homeopathic medicaments in sucrose as vehicle, namely: <em>Spigelia anthelmia</em> 9 CH (CH = centesimal hahnemannian), <em>Arsenicum album</em> 11 CH , <em>Kali phosphoricum</em> 15 CH, Cina 9 CH and <em>Apis mellifica</em> 15 CH, adding Ora Pro Nobis 6 CH (T1 treatment), <em>Ferrum metallicum</em> 6 CH (T2 treatment), or Ora Pro Nobis and <em>Ferrum metallicum</em> in equal parts (T3 treatment). The homeopathic substances were chosen in accordance with the guidebook “Homeopathic and Pharmacological Medical Material”, by Demarque, Jouanny, Poitevin and Saint-Jean. The animals underwent an adaptation period of 15 days before receiving the CHs, after which they were observed on three occasions, every 15 days, to measure the following parameters: number of Trichostrongylidae (T) and Strongylidae (S) eggs per gram of feces, Famacha®, hematocrit, body condition score, and weight. Four animals (1 T1, 2 T3 and 1 T4) left the experiment for different reasons (previous illness or parturition during the experiment). The efficacy of the treatments was calculated using the Reso 2.0 program. This program calculates the effectiveness based on the number of eggs found in the control and treated animals on each evaluation day. The results of the effectiveness of the treatments for T1 were 6%, 71% and 72% efficacy for T, and 78%, 20% and 81% for S, at 15, 30 and 45 days of administration, respectively. In T2, efficacy values considering T eggs were 0%, 69% and 79%, and for S, 97%, 46% and 44% at 15, 30 and 45 days, respectively. In T3, no efficacy was observed in relation to T (0% in all observations), but the efficacy values for S were 63%, 100% and 75% at 15, 30 and 45 days of product ingestion. It is noteworthy that the effectiveness of homeopathic medicines occurred in a situation in which all groups were losing weight. We concluded that daily HCs supply contributed to the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep.</p> Ubiratã Mariano de Souza, Mayara Isaías Vargas, Ricardo Lopes Dias da Costa, Rodrigo Giglioti, Cecília José Veríssimo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1867 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Walbaum) and the Aquatic Environment in the Mountain Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1871 <p>Truticulture is an activity widely developed activity in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil, including the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the target of this study. Antibiotic therapy is used for the prophylaxis and treatment of bacterial diseases. However, these drugs act on commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota of healthy and sick fish, which increases the presence of residues in the environment if used indiscriminately, favoring the selective pressure for bacterial resistance to antimicrobials and increasing horizontal transfer of resistance genes among several bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to carry out a survey of cultivable commensal and pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal content of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the aquatic environment for identification of bacteria resistant to antimicrobials and circulating pathogenic factors in the region. Five trout farms were visited. Nine samples of water from the active tanks and 50 fish of the species O. mykiss were collected from July to October and submitted to zootechnical evaluation including the parameters body mass (MC), total length (CT) and standard length (CP). The mean values were 307.15±149.65, 25.79±3.71 and 22.85±3.45, respectively. From the total samples, 222 bacterial isolates were obtained, and the susceptibility profile to antimicrobials was evaluated. Of the total of isolates, 54.5% (n = 121) showed Gram-negative bacteria, especially species from the Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families; and 45.5% (n = 101) Gram-positive, especially species of the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Kocuria and Gemella. We observed that 65.3% (n = 79) of Gram-negative bacteria and 82.2% (n = 83) of Gram-positive bacteria showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and a multidrug resistance profile was observed in 7.4% (n = 9) and 36.6% (n = 37), respectively. Both groups had statistically significant (P&lt;0,05) resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (p = 0.000; p = 0.045) according to Fisher's exact test. Cephalothin (45.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid (27.3%), ampicillin (26.5%) and cefoxitin (24,0%) for Gram-negative; amoxicillin and oxacillin (48.5%), ampicillin (42.6%), penicillin G (39.6%), clindamycin (33.7%), gentamicin (28.7%) and tetracycline (27.7%) for Gram-positive. In the molecular analysis, strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (n = 51) were submitted to the PCR technique to detect the methicillin-resistant mecA gene and to detect staphylococcal enterotoxins A, C and D, with the following results: 33.3% (n = 17) positive for the presence of the mecA gene; 98.0% (n = 50) for the sea gene; 9.8% (n = 5) for the sec gene; and 13.7% (n = 7) for the sed gene. Considering the microbiological diversity, resistance profile to antimicrobials associated with virulence factors, it is important to advise producers about adoption of sustainable practices in truticulture, in order to prevent the spread of resistant genes and the consequences to the environment and public health.</p> Nayara Borges Sampaio, Olney Vieira da Motta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1871 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Oxidizable Fractions and Total Organic Carbon in Soil With Application of Biochar and Cultivated With Eucalyptus http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1892 <p>Brazil has the largest area of planted forests in the world, about 9 million hectares, mostly composed of eucalyptus and pine. This large plantation area generates a large production of residues, estimated at 10 t ha-1 of eucalyptus bark per cultivation cycle. These residues have been reused for ground cover, heat and electricity production, and production of biochar through pyrolysis. Many characteristics of biochar make it attractive as a soil conditioner, such as its high porosity and specific surface area, associated with aromatic structure and acidic functional groups, which result in the accumulation and persistence of carbon in the soil, formation of electrical charges and nutrient retention and availability. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the pyrolysis temperature of eucalyptus bark biochar, for periods of 365 and 730 days after the use of doses of biochar in Eucaliptus urograndis plantations, on the total organic carbon (TOC) content and oxidizable carbon fractions in the classes of dry separated soil aggregates. The study was conducted in the experimental area of the Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo (Ifes) Alegre Campus, Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The soil of the area is classified as Red-Yellow Latosol with medium texture. The experiment was implemented in March 2018, where each treatment, in each block, was composed of a total of six E. urograndis plants, arranged in rows, previously formed in each block. The eucalyptus bark biochar was produced in a pyrolysis reactor (model SPPT V60) and then distributed, prior to planting, in a furrow with depth of 0.30 m and width of 0.40 m. Two slow pyrolysis temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) were used in the production of biochar, and five doses of biochar (0; 0.25; 0.5; 1 and 2% v v, corresponding to 0; 2.5; 5; 10; 20 t ha-1, respectively). Two soil samplings were performed, at 365 days and 730 days after the start of the experiment, at depths of 0.0-0.10 m and 0.10-0.30 m for the evaluation of TOC content and oxidizable carbon fractions. The effects of treatments and evaluation times were compared by orthogonal contrasts. When contrasting the pyrolysis temperatures for the production of biochar (350 ºC and 600 ºC), it was not possible to observe great differences in the soil attributes evaluated. The exception was in the aggregate class 2.0-0.250 mm, where the biochar produced at 600 ºC produced a significant increase in TOC content (p&lt;0.01) and oxidizable fractions F3 (p&lt;0.05) and F4 (p&lt;0.001) in both years and at both depths sampled. When the two sampling periods were compared, an increase in TOC values (p&lt;0.001) and of the fractions F1 (p&lt;0.001) and F2 (p&lt;0.01), in the first year of the experiment, was observed in the aggregate class &lt;0.250 mm in the two types of biochar studied. The results of this study, after two years of evaluation, show that the incorporation of oxidizable carbon to soil aggregates was relatively low compared to the results of other studies where biochar was as a soil conditioner. These results are related to the lack of adequate time for aggregate formation.</p> Bruno Fazolo Repossi, Otacílio José Passos Rangel, Maurício Novaes Souza, Renato Ribeiro Passos, Danilo Andrade Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1892 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Influence of Biochar Doses Applied in Soil Cultivated With Eucalyptus on Oxidizable Fractions and Total Organic Carbon http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1893 <p>The pyrolysis of agricultural wastes process in an environment with absence or deficiency of oxygen has drawn much attention for generating products such as biochar with potential to act as soil conditioners. Characteristics of biochar reinforce its performance as soil conditioner, such as high porosity, aromatic structure and presence of acid functional groups, which result in accumulation and persistence of carbon in the soil, generation of electrical charges, and retention and availability of nutrients. Considering that the time of adopting a management system can influence the quantity of total organic carbon (TOC) contents, but this may not indicate differences between the treatments evaluated, some authors have proposed to fractionate TOC according to four decreasing degrees of oxidation, through the use of different concentrations of sulfuric acid. This method, called TOC fractionation by degrees of oxidation, allows the classification of soil carbon into the fractions F1, F2, F3 and F4. Fractions F1 and F2 are more labile and are more related to the availability of nutrients and the formation and stabilization of macroaggregates, while fractions F3 and F4 are related to compounds with greater chemical stability and molecular weight. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of doses of eucalyptus bark biochar on TOC content and oxidizable organic carbon fractions in dry-separated soil aggregate classes. The study conducted in the field consisted of the application at a Eucaliptus urograndis plantation of five doses of eucalyptus bark biochar (0; 0.25; 0.5; 1 and 2% v v, equivalent to 0; 2.5; 5; 10; 20 t ha-1) produced at two pyrolysis temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C). Two soil samples were taken (365 days and 730 days) at depths of 0.0-0.10 m and 0.10-0.30 m. Through regression analysis of the biochar produced at 350 ºC, we observed a linear increase in the content of the fraction F2, in the classes of aggregates 4.00-2.00 mm (p&lt;0.05) and &lt;0.250 mm (p&lt;0.01); F4 in the class of aggregates 4.00-2.00 mm (p&lt;0.1), at depth 0.00-0.10 m; in F1int aggregate class &lt;0.250 mm (p&lt;0.1) and F2 in aggregate class 4.00-2.00 mm (p&lt;0.1), at sampling depth 0.10-0.30 m, in the samples collected at 365 days. At 730 days, quadratic increases were found for F3 in aggregate class 2.00-0.25 mm (p&lt;0.05) and linear increment of F4 fraction in aggregate class &lt;0.250 mm (p&lt;0.1), at depth 0.00-0.10 m. For the depth of 0.10-0.30 m linear increases in TOC contents were found in aggregate class 4.00-2.00 mm (p&lt;0.05) and a quadratic increase in the F3 fraction in aggregate class &lt;0.250 mm (p&lt;0.05). The application of biochar produced at 600 ºC promoted, in the first collection, linear increases in TOC contents in aggregate class 2.00-0.25 mm (p&lt;0.05) and in the F4 fraction in aggregate class 2.00-0.25 mm (p&lt;0.05), at the 0.00-0.10 m depth. At sampling depth of 0.10-0.30 m, an increase occurred in fractions F1 in aggregate class 2.00-0.25 (p&lt;0.1) and F3 in aggregate class 4.00-2.00 mm (p&lt;0.1). For the F4 fraction, in aggregate class 4.00-2.00 mm, there was a quadratic increase (p&lt;0.05). In the second collection (730 days), these effects were noted, in the form of a quadratic equation, for the F3 fraction in aggregate class 4.00-2.00 mm (p&lt;0.05) for the collection performed at 0.00-0.10 m. At depth 0.10-0.30 m, linear increases in TOC were found in aggregate class 2.00-0.25 mm (p&lt;0.05), F2 in aggregate class 4.00-2.00 mm (p&lt;0.1) and F4 in aggregate class &lt;0.250 mm (p&lt;0.1). Few significant results were observed regarding the applied doses of the biochar on TOC contents and organic carbon fractions. We believe the possible causes for not obtaining more significant results from the application of eucalyptus bark biochar in the soil in this experiment were, first, the dosages chosen, which could have been higher, and the texture of the soil studied, which did not have a great need for cementing agents for soil aggregation. Another factor to be observed is the time of the experiment, since the evaluations were performed two years after implementation. We can conclude that according to studies in the area, changes in TOC levels in tropical climate soils are usually noted in the medium and long term after the implementation of new management practices.</p> Bruno Fazolo Repossi, Otacílio José Passos Rangel, Maurício Novaes Souza, Renato Ribeiro Passos, Danilo Andrade Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1893 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Isoflavones In Soybeans: A New Aproach Aiming At Different Consumers http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1895 <p>Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with several uses and medical properties. Among animals, especially mammals and fish, these phytoestrogens can bind to estradiol receptors, so they can be used for natural hormonal treatments. Isoflavones include genistein, daidzein and glycitein. A large number of plants also contain such compounds, mainly Leguminosae (such as soybeans, peas, lentils, chickpeas, etc.) and mushrooms. Isoflavones are commercially extracted from soybeans (Glycine max), which are rich in phytoestrogens, especially genistein. Antioxidant, anti-fungal, anticancer and estrogenic activities are among the characteristics of this aglycone substance, which is used to ameliorate the symptoms of menopause. The identification and quantification of isoflavones is needed to find new sources of this compound. As a secondary compound, its amount in the plant depends on the climate conditions and varies among different cultivars. In this work, immunoassays based on polyclonal antibodies from rabbits were used to quantify isoflavones in 27 soybean cultivars, harvested in two different plots in Sao Paulo State (in the municipalities of Itapetininga and Adamantina). The soybeans were harvested at 14% moisture, ground and submitted to heat treatment and methanol extraction. The supernatants were placed in microplates for the plate trapped antigen enzyme linked immunoassay (PTA-ELISA). This assay showed several advantages, in particular the ability to conduct speedy analysis of a large number of samples. Besides that, it has a lower cost in comparison to chromatography or radioimmunoassay. In this experiment, in general the isoflavone content was higher in the Adamantina samples (higher temperature and lower altitude) in comparison to Itapetininga. Our results show that the same cultivar, when grown in different locations, can be targeted at different consumer niches. Due to their high content of isoflavones, soybeans can be indicated for pharmaceutical uses, such as extraction of phytoestrogens, for treatment of menopause symptoms in women who cannot use hormones, or for several cosmetic uses. In contrast, when isoflavones are present in low amounts, these soybeans can be indicated for human consumption, especially for vegans and vegetarians, consumers who obtain proteins mainly from leguminous seeds. Lower amounts of isoflavones are desired for teenagers and children, since it is an estrogen mimic. Of the 27 soybean cultivars, one harvested at Itapetininga and six from Adamantina had had high isoflavone content; and the remaining 20 did not differ statistically at 5% by the Tukey test</p> Keila Maria Roncato Duarte, Diego Messias Lera, Carlos Frederico de Carvalho Rodrigues, Silvio Tavares, Leticia Fonseca Bortoleto ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1895 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Sensory Response to Different Fermentation Processes of Coffee Grown Under Biodynamic Management http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1896 <p>Since Brazil is the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world, the use of agricultural practices that can favor the quality of this product in the country is of great importance. The fermentation processes of coffee beans, which can influence their sensory characteristics, are the subject of much research around the world. To improve the sensory attributes of the beverage, it is worth investigating whether control of the fermentation phase is a key point in the post-harvest stages, since microorganisms can produce metabolites from the chemical and biochemical changes that occur with coffee beans during processing, detracting from the quality of the final product. In order to find the best fermentation process for this crop, this study evaluated the biodynamic management through investigation of different fermentation processes with arabica coffee. The beans were harvested at Fazenda Camocim, located in the municipality of Domingos Martins, in the mountainous region of the state of Espírito Santo, and were taken to the Coffee Research and Analysis Laboratory (LAPC) at the Venda Nova do Imigrante Campus of IFES. The genetic material used was the yellow Bourbon variety. The beans were subjected to different fermentation processes, and each treatment was subdivided into five replications, conducted in a randomized block design, as follows: Washed (husked coffee, with fermentation induced in water, for 72 hours, anaerobically); Yeast fermentation (hulled coffee, with fermentation induced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae spp., in water for 72 hours, anaerobically), Semi-dry (hulled coffee, spontaneously fermented) and Natural (coffee with husk, spontaneously fermented). After the fermentation and drying process, the coffee beans were roasted and the sensory analysis was conducted according to the Specialty Coffee Association (SCA) protocols, performed by trained tasters, called Q-Graders, to evaluate the quality of the coffee beans. Ten sensory attributes were investigated: Fragrance/Aroma, Uniformity, No Flaws (Clean Cup), Sweetness, Flavor, Acidity, Body, Finish, Balance and Flaws. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the averages of the final grades were compared using the Tukey test. The analyses showed there was a significant difference between the treatments, and the final average grads of the four processing methods were as follows: Washed: 82.66; Yeast fermentation: 83.90; Semi-dry: 84.04; and Natural: 85.20. Through these results, it was possible to identify changes in the sensorial profile of the coffees, which were directly related to the final grade. The induced fermentation coffees obtained lower scores than the spontaneously fermented coffees, so that only the Washed treatment differed statistically from the natural treatment, but the others did not differ from each other by the Tukey test at 5% probability. These results demonstrated that the biodynamic system of coffee growing at the farm in question promoted better sensory results with spontaneous fermentation. According to the SCA, coffees with a final grade of 80 points onwards are classified as specialty coffees, and as this grade increases, the sensory attributes of the coffee become more intense and pleasant. Therefore, all coffees in the experiment were classified as specialty coffees, contributing to demonstrate that biodynamic management can be a positive tool to improve the quality of the coffee beverage, providing greater gains for producers.</p> Bruna Lopes Caon, Ana Cláudia Moreira Guerra, Julio Cesar Fiorio Vettorazzi, Gracieli Lorenzoni Marotto, Joana Scarparo Novello, Lucas Louzada Pereira, Ana Paula Candido, Gabriel Berilli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1896 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Highlight on Water Resources in the Five Brazilian Regions http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1898 <p>Brazil is recognized internationally as the “Land of Water", in particular for its huge dams distributed throughout the country. More generally, Brazil is famous for its plentiful water resources, consisting of rivers, streams, lakes and springs, and also the accumulation of groundwater, described in studies of several cities in the five official Brazilian regions. In the Northeast region, for example, the impact caused by the construction of the Sobradinho Dam in the state of Bahia in 1973 on a stretch of the São Francisco River, which entered activity in 1979, made it possible to improve the lives of the residents of cities, including in nearby states and promoting stability of the nation's energy supply. In the North region, we can highlight surface water sources and aquifers, respectively, such as the Tapajós, Negro, Solimões rivers, among others, and groundwater reserves such as Alter do Chão located in the state of Pará. In the Southeast region, the state of Rio de Janeiro has plentiful surface water availability from the Paraíba do Sul River, which supports the consumption of more than 50 municipalities. In addition to Rio de Janeiro, the other states of the region (Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Espírito Santo) contain water sources that have ensured the survival of their high demographic density over the years, indicating the importance of preservation and new methods of use of wastewater reuse or restoration to the environment. In the South region, attention has been drawn to the challenge of managing the uses of water resources for better exploitation of the excess water stemming from periods of flood, to reduce the dependence on the use of aquifers in Serra Geral and Guarani. In turn, the Midwest region is supplied by the Tocantins-Araguaia, Paraná, Amazon, Paraguay and São Francisco rivers, but is subject to the problem of deforestation of riverside areas and lack of proper sanitation. In the final analysis, the water resources in Brazil are an intangible heritage requiring measures for wise distribution to the population while preserving the environment, for the benefit of the country itself and the world.</p> Ana Lúcia de Oliveira Borges, Tais Karinna de Oliveira Borges, Flávia Cartaxo Ramalho Vilar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1898 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Native Bees Associated With Siratro (Fabaceae) in an Environmental Recovery Area http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1899 <p><em>Macroptilium atropurpureum</em> (purple bush-bean or siratro) is a perennial vine belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae. It is adapted to dry soils, not tolerating waterlogged soils. Siratro is a cover plant that can be used in different ways, such as fixing nitrogen in the soil, producing forage for cattle and sheep, combating erosion, and revegetating anthropized areas. It also has effects against root-knot nematodes, and can be planted in areas intended for fruit growing to combat undesirable plants, as well as in combination with grasses. The siratro plant has reddish-purple inflorescences of the racemose type, and the flowers are composed of two petals with a third serving as a vane. The reproductive structures are self-compatible, that is, the species has self-pollination. However, the presence of pollinators, including bees, favors the plant’s reproduction. The present study aimed to identify the species of native bees visiting the inflorescences of <em>Macroptilium atropurpureum</em> between March and December 2020 in an environmental recovery area located at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Espírito Santo, in Alegre, south of Espírito Santo state. The samples were collected monthly between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., totaling a sampling effort of 40 hours. The bees were captured using the transect method of sweeping over flowers with an entomological net. The inflorescences were observed for 10 minutes and the visiting bees were collected and transferred to a killing flask containing ethyl acetate. Then the bees were sorted, dried, identified, labeled, and deposited with the Caparaó Museum of Zoology. Fifty-six specimens were collected, representing eight bee species, distributed in four tribes and two families: <em>Eulaema nigrita</em> Lepeletier, 1841, <em>Euglossa cordata</em> (Linnaeus, 1758); <em>Euglossa fimbriata</em> Moure, 1968; <em>Euglossa leucotricha</em> Rebêlo &amp; Moure, 1996; and <em>Euglossa</em> sp. 1 Latreille, 1802, belonging to Euglossini, Apidae; <em>Centris fuscata</em> Lepeletier, 1841, belonging to Centridini, Apidae; <em>Epanthidium tigrinum</em> (Schrottky, 1905), belonging to Anthidiini, Megachilidae; and <em>Megachile</em> sp.1 Latreille, belonging to Megachilini, Megachilidae. As for the abundance, <em>Euglossa cordata</em> was the most representative, accounting for 35% of the individuals collected, followed by <em>Euglossa fimbriata</em>, with 20%, <em>Euglossa</em> sp.1, with 15%, <em>Megachile</em> sp.1, with 9%, <em>Epanthidium tigrinum</em>, with 7%, <em>Euglossa leucotricha</em> and <em>Eulaema nigrita</em>, with 6% each, and <em>Centris fuscata</em>, with 2%. The Euglossini tribe showed a relevant association with siratro, with 82% of the collected bees belonging to this tribe. Representatives of the Euglossini tribe are known as “orchid bees”, since males visit orchids in search of fragrances for use to attract females, and are involved in pollination of several native botanical species of agricultural interest. <em>Euglossa cordata</em> is a generalist bee, being able to travel long distances in search of food resources. However, other generalist bees of the tribe, such as <em>Eulaema nigrita</em>, were not abundant in the area. The bees of the Megachilidae family, represented by two species in this study, showed the highest rate of visitation to the siratro inflorescences, about 70%, between 12 a.m. and 2 p.m., while the species belonging to the Apidae family, in the Euglossini and Centridini tribes, did not show a preferred time interval for visiting the inflorescences. The presence of pollinators in the environment is essential, especially in areas that are undergoing recovery, since these insects contribute to the reproduction of botanical species, helping in the vegetative development of the area. Therefore, enriching areas in environmental recovery with fast-growing forage cover crops, such as siratro, favors the nutritional and edaphic improvement of the soils, as well as benefits the native bee fauna, by providing food and shelter, while the native flora is in the process of regeneration.</p> Willian Moreira da Costa, Kamila Moreira da Costa, Luceli de Souza, Manuela Silva de Amorim, Aparecida de Fátima Madella de Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1899 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Native Bees Associated With Crotalaria (Fabaceae) In A Pasture Area http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1900 <p>The genus <em>Crotalaria</em>, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, is represented by plants with strong performance in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, being recommended especially for areas that need green manuring. <em>Crotalaria ochroleuca</em> is one of the species of this group used the most, since it an easy to plant, and produces abundant forage. It promotes erosion control as well as in soil enrichment, and is used as green manure in several crops: beans, cotton, sugarcane and various vegetables, among others. It is a bushy, erect plant, with an annual cycle, with racemose inflorescences having yellow flowers. Additionally, it is an important plant for bees, by providing food resources such as nectar and pollen. The visitation of bees to the inflorescences contributes to the pollination of the plant and the consequent production of seeds. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of native bees visiting the inflorescences of <em>Crotalaria ochroleuca</em> in a pasture area. The study was carried out between April 2020 and February 2021 in a pasture area, located in Rive, district of Alegre, south of Espírito Santo state. Two monthly collections were performed between 10 a.m. and 1 p.m., totaling a sampling effort of 66 hours. The samplings were carried out using the transect method with capture of flowers with an entomological net, where the inflorescences were observed for 10 minutes and the visiting bees were collected, transferred to a killing flask containing ethyl acetate. In the laboratory, the bees were sorted, dried, identified, labeled, and deposited with the Caparaó Museum of Zoology, at Federal Institute of Espírito Santo – Alegre Campus. Ninety-two specimens were collected, representing seven species of bees, distributed in three tribes grouped into two families: <em>Xylocopa frontalis</em> (Olivier, 1789); <em>Xylocopa grisescens</em> Lepeletier, 1841; <em>Xylocopa nigrocincta</em> Smith, 1854; <em>Xylocopa hirsutissima</em> Maidl, 1912; belonging to Xylocopini, Apidae; <em>Epanthidium tigrinum</em> (Schrottky, 1905), belonging to Anthidiini, Megachilidae; <em>Megachile</em> sp.1 Latreille, 1802 and <em>Megachile</em> sp.2 Latreille, 1802, belonging to Megachilini, Megachilidae. <em>Xylocopa frontalis</em> was the most abundant species, accounting for 40% of all individuals collected, followed by <em>Megachile</em> sp.1 with 25%, <em>Xylocopa grisescens</em> with 14%, <em>Xylocopa nigrocincta</em> with 9%, <em>Megachile</em> sp.2 with 6%, and <em>Xylocopa hirsutissima</em> and <em>Epanthidium tigrinum</em>, with 3% each. Four species were found for the genus <em>Xylocopa</em>, and it was represented by large and robust bees, which have generalist feeding behavior, visiting several botanical species, including plants of agricultural interest. These bees nest, especially in tree trunks and dry branches. They are usually solitary, but some species may present some level of sociability. Although, in the study area there were few target trees for <em>Xylocopa</em> bees to use for nesting, the species richness may have been influenced by the proximity to a forest fragment, with the two areas being approximately 300 meters apart. Female Megachilidae bees, in addition to collecting pollen grains, also use floral fragments to build their nests, and resins to maintain the nests and close the brood cells. They can nest in branches, preexisting cavities in wood and holes in the ground. In fact, some species can build their nests in rock cavities. Bees of the genus <em>Xylocopa </em>had a higher rate of visitation to Crotalaria inflorescences, about 70%, between 10:00 and 12:00, while the bees of the genera <em>Megachile </em>and <em>Epanthidium</em> were better represented, about 63%, between 12:00 and 13:00. <em>Crotalaria ochroleuca</em> is a botanical species exploited as a food source by native bees, which can be indicated for planting and rational management in agricultural environments and/or in environmental recovery areas.</p> Willian Moreira da Costa, Kamila Moreira da Costa, Luceli de Souza, Manuela Silva de Amorim, Aparecida de Fátima Madella de Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1900 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Production of Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lam in an Agroforestry System in Santarem, Pará – Preliminary Results http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1901 <p>Agroforestry systems (AFSs) are defined as areas with mixed production of trees and crops, including forage for livestock. The objective is to maintain production in a sustainable way. In this study, we evaluated the production of sweet potato in different agroforestry arrangements. This tuber was chosen because it has a short cycle, ranging from 90 to 120 days, and has good market acceptance. The experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of the Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), located in the municipality of Santarém, in the western region of Pará state. The soil of the experimental area is classified as an ardissolic dystrophic yellow latosol, with levels of sand between 439 and 679g/kg, silica from 64 to 99g/kg and clay between 234 and 479g/kg. The experimental design adopted was a completely randomized, consisting of 3 plots (1x5m) in each treatment. The planting areas had been submitted to two reforestation practices and a control with cultivation in full sun. The shaded areas chosen for the experiment were planted with teak (Tectona grandis) and African mahogany (khaya sp), both with 3x2m spacing, with 5 years of age. After choosing the planting space, measurements were made of the plots that had similar sizes in the three treatments: full sun, teak and African mahogany. For planting, windrows were established in the form of a mound higher than the surrounding ground, approximately 30 cm high. The tuberous roots of sweet potatoes were planted and were harvested after 138 days, when the potatoes reached physiological maturity. After harvesting, the material was taken to the UFOPA forest seed laboratory, where all morphometric analysis procedures were performed. Results showed that the treatment in full sun was superior to the shaded treatments (Teak and African Mahogany). In full sun, 90 potatoes were produced, in Teca 13 potatoes were produced and in mahogany 19 potatoes. These results show that sweet potato is not well adapted to shaded areas.</p> Aline Pacheco, Samanda Thais Neves, Daniela Pauletto, Verena Santos de Sousa, Adria Fernandes da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1901 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Selection Of Tetranychid Mite Species For Mass Multiplication Of The Predatory Mite Phytoseulus Macropilis http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1902 <p>Applied biological control is defined as the production of beneficial arthropods to be released on a large scale in crops under attack by pests. This technique is an alternative to minimize the conventional use of insecticides. For the production of these beneficial organisms to be economically viable, they must be multiplied in large numbers with low cost and time. In the production of phytoseiid predatory mites, it is also necessary to multiply the pest in host plants, thus requiring the establishment of a tritrophic production system, which can burden the production process in a biofactory. One way to optimize the production of predatory mites is to select the best prey species (those that are most efficient for the predator to multiply with less cost and production time). In this sense, the objective of this work was to select the best species of phytophagous mites to be used in the production of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis. The selection criterion was the oviposition rate of two phytophagous mite species: the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the red mite Tetranychus ludeni, on leaves of Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) during 4 days. There was a significant difference between phytophagous oviposition (z=17.89; DF=1; p&lt;0.05) and the number of eggs laid by the two-spotted spider mite was 3 times higher than that of the red spider mite.These results indicate that the two-spotted spider mite has greater potential and multiplication efficiency in a biofactory for the production of predatory mites.</p> Bárbara Luísa Soares Silva, Juliana Carvalho Simões, Felipe de Lemos, Elem Fialho Martins ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1902 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Visitor Bees of Yellow Passion Fruit (Passifloraceae) in Urban Cultivation http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1903 <p>The yellow passion fruit, Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, belonging to the Passifloraceae family, is a climbing plant that has long branches with a grooved stem. It is cultivated in different regions of Brazil. The fruit can be consumed fresh or in the form of juices, among products, and is also used in the pharmaceutical industry. The yellow passion fruit plant has self-incompatible reproductive structures, so the flowers need pollinators to carry the pollen from one flower to another for fertilization, generating fruits. The crop thus depends on effective pollinators, without which growers must resort to artificial pollination. Among the effective pollinators are large and robust bee species belonging to the genera Xylocopa, Centris, Epicharis, Eulaema and Bombus. This study sought to identify the species of native bees visiting yellow passion fruit plants growing in an area of 20m2 located in an urban area (Conduru, district of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, south of Espírito Santo). The surrounding areas contain residences with few spaces for home and/or public gardens, and also by a small strip of adjacent pasture. Observations were carried out in October 2021, when the passion fruit plants were in bloom. Strategic points were set within the area where two observers simultaneously identified and counted the visiting bees. The observations were carried out between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m., three times a week, totaling a sampling effort of 36 hours. Five species of bees were identified, distributed in four tribes and one family: Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier, 1789) and Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier, 1841, for Xylocopini, Apidae; Epicharis flava Friese, 1900, for Centridini, Apidae; Bombus morio (Swederus, 1787), for Bombini, Apidae; and Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793), for Meliponini, Apidae. Xylocopa frontalis was the most abundant species, with eight individuals, followed by Xylocopa grisescens, with five individuals, Bombus morio and Trigona spinipes with three individuals each, and Epicharis flava, with two individuals. The bees with the highest frequency of visits to the flowers were Xylocopa frontalis, with 55% of all visits, followed by Xylocopa grisescens, with 25%, Bombus morio, with 10%, and Epicharis flava and Trigona spinipes, with 5% each. The richness and abundance of bees in the studied area was low, which is probably related to the absence of nearby green areas, since the crop area us mainly surrounded by residences. The presence of bumblebees in passion fruit crops depends on some factors, mainly the availability of resources close to the cultivation environments, since these bees have some ecological requirements, such as the presence of dry trunks and branches to build their nests. For native bees in general, and for effective pollinators of passion fruit, it is essential to offer food resources (nectar, pollen, oils and resins) provided by the adjacent flora (forested environments, spontaneous plants, gardens, among others) found nearby cultivation areas, as they are supplementary resources in the periods when the crops are not in bloom, thus contributing to maintain the bee community in the areas of interest. Therefore, preserving green areas, as well as enriching the surroundings of cultivation areas with plants that offer resources, can provide benefits to bees and contribute to crop pollination.</p> Willian Moreira da Costa, Kamila Moreira da Costa, Luceli de Souza, Aparecida de Fátima Madella de Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1903 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Application Of Germination Tests Of Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1904 <p>Unconventional vegetables (HNC) belong to the group of unconventional food plants (PANC), they are excellent sources of nutrients, minerals, vitamins and other essential biomolecules for human nutrition. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA), the HNC are little known, in addition to not being fully inserted into the production chains, so that their benefits are equally little disseminated in society. Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) is an HNC abundant in omega-3 and is considered the plant species that has the highest amount of this acid. Omega-3 is an essential nutrient for human health, being directly involved in brain functions, cell division and other stages of metabolism. The species is a rich source of vitamins A, C, B and other nutrients beneficial to health such as calcium, magnesium, iron and potassium. It is usually propagated via seeds due to the high production rate of such multiplying agents. It can also be propagated asexually by using vegetative propagules, such as stems, leaves, etc. The HNC, although still little known by society, are excellent sources of nutrients and carry cultural importance for several peoples, for example, the chicken with ora-pro-nóbis, a typical dish of Minas Gerais cuisine (Minas Gerais / Brazil). In the last decades, the population's eating habits have been modified, the search for products that bring in themselves cultural and representative value of peoples and regions is a growing demand, as well as the search for foods with greater availability of nutrients. In view of this demand for HNC, it is necessary to develop technologies and disseminate information on the production of seedlings of such vegetables so that the cultivation can supply the market. The objective of the research was to evaluate the germination performance of purslane seeds under different test conditions. The research was conducted at the Bromatology Laboratory of the Santa Rita Experimental Field at EPAMIG (CESR), in Prudente de Morais-MG, from&nbsp; March 3, 2022 to July 12, 2022.The experimental design used was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four replications of 25 seeds. The tests were carried out on specific paper for germination. The seeds used were collected in the production sector of CESR. The tests were conducted in a B.O.D. the first count was performed at 5 days and the second count was performed 14 days after the assembly of each test, as described by the RAS (Rules for Seed Analysis-MAPA). The treatments were composed by the different germination tests, namely: T1:25ºC, 12h light; T2: (Pre-cooling at 10ºC/3 days) 25ºC, 12h light; T3:(Pre-cooling at 5ºC/7 days) 25ºC, 16h light; T4:(Pre-cooling at 5ºC/7 days) KNO3 2g/L, 25ºC, 16h light; T5:KNO3 2g/L, 25°C, 16h light; T6: (Cleaning in 1% NaClO solution) 35ºC, 12h light; T7: (Cleaning in 2% NaClO solution) 35ºC, 12h light and T8:35ºC,12h light. The results obtained were submitted to analysis of variance and test of means. It was observed that disinfection with NaClO and the use of higher temperature contributed to increase the germination percentage of the seeds. Tests 1 and 2 showed the highest values ​​for hard seeds. Test 6 provided a higher percentage of germination compared to tests 1, 2, 4 and 5. The use of KNO3 did not significantly increase the germination percentage of the seeds. Despite some advances, the different combinations of pre-cooling, temperature, light, disinfection and use of a substance to break dormancy, which constituted the tests carried out in this work, were not enough to obtain an acceptable percentage of germination for purslane. The results demonstrate the need for further investigation on the appropriate conditions to promote the germination of the species.</p> Larissa Grazielle P. Melo, Marinalva Woods Pedrosa, Thaís Silva Sales, Marialva Alvarenga Moreira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1904 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Green Corn Development And Yield With Different Summer Soil Covering Plants In A No-Tillage Agro-Ecological System http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1905 <p>Agro-ecology as a science lays the foundations for the construction of sustainable agriculture and sustainable rural development strategies. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and yield of green corn (<em>Zea mays </em>L<em>.</em>) cultivated in a no-tillage agro-ecological system (NTS) with different ground cover plants. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Domingos Martins, Espírito Santo, Brazil (20° 22' 16.91"S and 41° 03' 41.83" W) in the Agro-ecology Reference Unit (RUA) belonging to Incaper, in five plots with total area of 720 m², with a clayey dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol, which has been under NTS since 2009. It was arranged in a randomized block design, with six replications and five production systems, consisting of three soil covers in the no-tillage agro-ecological system: sun hemp (<em>Crotalaria juncea</em> L.); millet (<em>Pennisetum americanum </em>L.); and sun hemp/millet intercropping; and two systems without straw and with soil tillage - one agro-ecological and the other conventional. The plots under the organic system were managed according to the principles of agro-ecology, but in some there was soil disturbance before planting for research purposes. On the other hand, the plots in the conventional system were managed according to the techniques widely disseminated and specific to this system. The selected hybrid corn was AG 1051, planted with spacing of 1.00 x 0.20 m. At 23 and 38 days after emergence (DAE), corresponding to the V5 (five developed leaves) and V10 (10 developed leaves) stages, weeding was carried out between the rows of the plots under both systems, according to the observation of visual aspects of the crop and previous practical experiences of the field workers of RUA. At 23, 38 and 79 DAE, respectively, in the V5, V10 and R3 (milky grain) stages, the following evaluations were carried out on ten plants randomly identified in the useful area of each plot: stem diameter and height of the plant from the ground to the insertion of the last completely expanded leaf. Averages were compared using the Tukey test at 5% probability. Evaluations were carried out of stem diameter and plant height, at stages V5, V10 and R3; ear yield with straw and without straw; average weight of 15 ears with straw and without straw; average length and diameter of ears without straw and the percentage of straw. For all agronomic characteristics evaluated, except for length and average diameter of ears without straw and the straw percentage, all the treatments studied were statistically superior to the conventional system. The agronomic characteristic yield, which is the most important among all evaluated, did not show statistical difference among all treatments in the agro-ecological system. Therefore, both the agro-ecological system without straw and with soil tillage, and the agro-ecological systems with straw and without soil tillage using single sun hemp, single millet and sun hemp/millet intercropping can be used with good corn yield.</p> Aline Marchiori Crespo, Maurício Novaes Souza, Luiz Fernando Favarato, Otacílio José Passos Rangel, João Batista Silva Araújo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1905 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Payment For Environmental Services: A Case Study In The Córrego Horizonte Sub-Basin, Rive-Alegre, Espírito Santo http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1908 <p>Historically, agriculture has made the largest contribution to the Brazilian trade balance, with farming and stock breeding generating more revenue in gross domestic product (GDP) compared to industry and commerce. Thus, one of the biggest challenges for Brazil is to associate economic development with agricultural production at the same time as seeking to reduce environmental impacts on natural resources. At the global level, the environmental crisis is an issue that has generated widespread debates in developed and developing countries. In turn, it has a significant influence on the choice or continuance of trading partners. In this sense, the poor environmental management of nations has been observed and questioned, as in the European Union and Mercosur frameworks. In this way, it can be seen that it is necessary for Brazil to reconcile economic development, which strongly depends on the agricultural sector, with environmental protection and conservation. Horizonte Stream in the district of Rive, municipality of Alegre, state of Espírito Santo, is just one of the water resources that have been polluted due to the lack of a sustainable vision of the environment. Thus, the lack of definition of public policies makes it necessary to adopt environmental protection measures aimed at this stream. Among the existing possibilities is payment for environmental services (PES). The main ideas of PES are the recognition of good environmental practices and corresponding financial rewards. Thus, the general objective of this work was to evaluate the willingness of residents of the district of Rive to contribute financially for environmental services, corresponding to the protection, recovery and conservation of the micro-basin of Horizonte Stream in the stretch in the Rive District. Methodologically, the adapted contingent valuation method (CVM) was used. This method basically asks people what they are willing to pay (DaP) for an environmental benefit. Thus, to determine the willingness of residents to pay for environmental services, questionnaires were applied to a sample of 10% of the residents of the district in order to identify their acceptance of sustainable protection through investment in the recovery of Horizonte Stream. Regarding the amount to be charged, most respondents indicated R$ 2.00 as the payment they would be willing to add to their monthly water bill to support a program to recover the quality of water in the stream.</p> Maurício Novaes Souza, Credigar Gonçalves Moreira, Bruno de Lima Preto, Ana Cláudia Hebling Meira ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1908 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Population Of Equids In The Community Of Gironda, Municipality Of Jerônimo Monteiro, Espírito Santo, Brazil http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1909 <p>&nbsp;The Equidae family has one genus, <em>Equus</em>. In this genus, the species are distributed between wild (<em>Equus zebra</em>) and domesticated (<em>Equus caballus, Equus asinus</em>). The animals of the genus <em>Equus </em>that underwent domestication over the centuries are horses and donkeys. With the development of cars, motorcycles and agricultural machinery, these animals have suffered a population decline in rural areas, mainly in small properties, making them almost non-existent in such farms. Due to the importance these animals still have in society, this study aimed to survey the equine population of existing in the Community of Gironda, municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Fieldwork was carried out to identify and quantify the species and sexes of Equidae in the community. The location of the species was georeferenced using a GNSS receiver (GPSMAP64S). Photographic records were also made. Then, with a Geographic Information System program (QGIS 3.16.6), the study area was delimited, layers were created, and the spatial and quantitative distribution of the animals was analyzed for the elaboration of a map of the community’s equine population. All mapping procedures were performed with the aid of the &nbsp;SIRGAS 2000 Coordinate Reference System - UTM Zone 24S. We found that the animals are present in 10 locales in the Gironda community. The locales where the presence of horses was identified corresponded to Córrego Fundo; Gironda (divided between three sites: Anselmo, Almir and Jambo); Sítio Wilson Louzada; Vista Alegre; Sítio Zé Garcia; Sítio Wilson Garcia; Sítio Binoti; Sítio Marãmba; Serro; and Figueira. The total number of animals was 33 (24 females and 9 males), numbers considered low. Serro was the location that had the largest number of animals, with three geldings, one breeder and two mares. The breeder was kept apart from the females by confinement in a stall. We observed that the Gironde community has a greater number of fertile than infertile females, as well as more horses than donkeys, which allows us to hypothesize that in this community there is greater reproduction and succession of horses. However, the vast majority of horses had been neutered and pregnancies are long, which can compromise the evolution of the population. The results achieved in this survey point to the need to conduct research to expand knowledge about the equine population of small properties in the state of Espírito Santo, given the importance of these animals for leisure, therapy and work. It should be noted that the Gironda community is rural and, so some of these animals could be used or trained for animal traction, an economic alternative to machines, to draw farm implements and transport agricultural inputs, in addition to assisting in the management of cattle.</p> Ueldiane Quintiliano Lins, Jeferson Luiz Ferrari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1909 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Preference and Potential of Different Preys in Mass Production of the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus Macropilis http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1910 <p>&nbsp;The applied biological control consists of the inundative release of natural enemies on the attacked plants aiming at immediate reduction of pests. Control agents or natural enemies are created in mass in the laboratory and are periodically released on a large scale, helping to decrease the use of conventional insecticides and acaricides. For production of the predatory mite <em>Phytoseiulus macropilis</em>, it is necessary to multiply the pest (generally a phytophagous mite of the same species that is targeted for control in the field) in host plants. For the production of these beneficial microorganisms to be viable, they must be multiplied in large numbers with low cost and time. Thus, it is necessary to establish a production system for host plants, phytophagous mites and predatory mites, which can be an expensive process in a biofactory. One way to optimize production is to evaluate the oviposition potential of predatory mites when fed with different prey. In this sense, the objective of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and select the best food to guarantee high production of the predatory mite. The number of eggs laid by adult females of the predator <em>P. macropilis</em> when fed with the two phytophagous species (the two-spotted spider mite <em>Tetranychus urticae</em> and the red mite <em>Tetranychus ludeni</em>) during 24 hours was evaluated. There was no significant difference in egg production of female predators when fed with different phytophagous species (z= -0.211; DF=1; p=0.833). In the treatment in which the two-spotted mite was used as food, the average number of eggs was 2.09, while in the treatment with the red mite it was 1.91, both evaluated after 24 hours. Therefore, the results obtained allow us to infer that the predatory mite <em>P. macropilis</em> does not have a considerable difference in its reproductive potential in relation to the two different prey species tested.</p> Bárbara Luísa Soares Silva, Juliana Carvalho Simões, Felipe de Lemos, Elem Fialho Martins ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1910 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Soil Resistance to Root Penetration in Different Coffee Agro-Ecological Management Systems http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1911 <p>Most coffee farmers in Espírito Santo have plantations managed with the conventional system. This system is characterized by deforestation of native areas and the indiscriminate use of agrochemical inputs that compromise the physical, chemical and biological quality of the soil. In contrast to the conventional system, the agro-ecological management system (AMS) contributes to the sustainability of ecosystems and improvement of soil attributes. The planting of coffee trees in the SMA is considered a sustainable alternative for agricultural production, providing extra income for farmers and reducing their production costs. The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil mechanical resistance to root penetration (RP) of arabica coffee plants (Coffea arabica L.) in plantations with SMA management, in relation to the timing since the start of intercropping. The study was carried out on a family farm located in the municipality of Guaçuí-ES. The SMA parameters evaluated were: S1 (Coffea arabica L., Musa sp. and Euterpe edulis) planted 20 years ago; S2 (Coffea arabica L., Musa sp. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth) planted 4 years ago; and S3 (Coffea arabica L. and Musa sp) planted simultaneously 2 years ago. RP was measured under field conditions, in the of 0.0–0.10 m soil layer, using an impact penetrometer. Three replications were carried out at two sampling points, under the projection of the coffee tree canopy (PC) and between the rows (EL) in the three SMA areas. In a reference area, native forest (MNT), RP was measured randomly, in the same soil profile, with three repetitions, totaling 21 repetitions in the entire study area. Mean values of SMA RP were submitted to Dunnett’s test at 5% significance. The results showed that MNT had the lowest mean value (1.48 MPa). The mean values of SMA S1 (PC and EL) were statistically equal to the values displayed by the MNT. The reduction in the value of RP in this system may have been due to the minimum mobilization of the soil, the high and constant input of organic matter from the pruning of coffee trees and plants intercropped for 20 years. It is worth mentioning that this area was never used for cattle breeding. The absence of trampling contributed to the maintenance of the physical quality of the soil. The highest mean values were obtained for S2 (PC) and S3 (PC and EL): 4.98, 4.50 and 4.08 MPa, respectively, with significance of p&lt;0.001, evidencing a difference in relation to the results obtained for MNT. The highest RP values observed for the SMA with least implementation time can be attributed to the intense land uses as pasture, with cattle trampling, and coffee monoculture, causing an increase in RP over the years. The SMA S2 (EL) obtained an average value of 3.23 MPa with p&lt;0.01, contrasting with the lowest value of MNT. Between the rows of this system, corn (Zea mays) and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) are planted, which may have promoted the beginning of RP improvement during the years of SMA implementation. Soil resistance to root penetration was affected by long years of conventional management of coffee plantations and cattle grazing. Results showed that S2 and S3 are still under negative influence in relation to the RP due to the management history. The implementation time of these SMA areas was still not enough to promote significant improvements. On the other hand, the longer time of implantation of the SMA (S1) had a positive influence in reducing the resistance to penetration of the roots in the soil, favoring the growth and development of the root system, with positive reflections on the sustainability of the agro-ecosystems and the soil conservation.</p> Maria A. B. Silva, Otacilio J. P. Rangel, Renato R. Passos, Danilo A. Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1911 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Characteristics of Improvement of Improvement Techniques in Brazilian Grape Production http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1872 <p>Agricultural activities in Brazil have steadily increased in recent years, due to all the advantages that the country has, from natural resources to the expectation of production and consumption of investors and society in general. The Northeast region, specifically the São Francisco Valley region (municipalities of Casa Nova, Curaçá and Juazeiro, Bahia, and Petrolina, Pernambuco) is considered apt for grape production. According to the observed data, from 2008 to 2015, the entry of international certifiers, together with the work of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), generated improved results for the production of wine and table grapes, marketed both in the country and abroad. In the 1990s, for example, farms produced few varieties, and lost more than 40% of production to infestations of pests and pathogens and natural phenomena. Currently, farmers can use technologies, business plans, partnerships with research institutes such as International Fruit Genetics (IFG) and other companies that sell certified seedlings and evaluate crops with the necessary characteristics for the nomenclature of the product to maintain the standards accepted worldwide. Thanks to the results of adaptation, genetics, vigor, post-harvest quality and crispness, Brazilian grapes are recognized as tasty, resistant and available throughout the year. International trade includes varieties such as Scarlota, Arra 15, Arra 32, Saphiro, Jubilee, Victoria, Thompson and many others. New ventures involving grapes in recent years have been increasing the types of fruit. In some farms, more than 20 varieties are produced, of which 2, developed with EMBRAPA, have national dominance, in contrast to more than 50 types coming from Europe and North America to serve the global market. Other fruits such as lemons, oranges, avocados and apples, among others, are being tested for export markets, but the grape business in Brazil stands out for expansion based on technology, innovation and a strong market. The search for innovative propagation materials accepted by modern consumers has favored the production of genetically improved cultivars, enabling the maintenance of modern and efficient agriculture.</p> Ana Lúcia de Oliveira Borges, Tais Karinna de Oliveira Borges, Aline Rocha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1872 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Effeciency of Biological and Chemical Products in the Management of Meloidogyne Exigua in Arabica Coffee http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1914 <p>The objective of this work isw to evaluate the isolated and combined effect of two biofertilizers (Vitaflex and Maxfert) and a low-toxicity nematicide (fluensulfone) in the management of <em>Meloidogyne exigua</em> in arabica coffee in a cultivated field in the region of Iúna, southern Espírito Santo. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 9 treatments and four replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 8 plants and the evaluation was carried out in the six central plants. The following treatments were tested: T1- Control (negative control); T2- Rugby (15 L/ha) (Positive control); T3-Nimitz (1.0 L/ha); T4- Vitaflex (10 L/ha); T5- Maxfert (20 L/ha); T6- Vitaflex 10 L/ha + Nimitz (1.0 L/ha); T7- Maxfert 20 L/ha + Nimitz 1.0 L/ha; T8- Vitaflex 10 L/ha + Maxfert 20 L/ha; and T9- Vitaflex 10 L/ha + Maxfert 20 L/ha + Nimitz 1.0 L/ha. Each product was applied following the respective technical recommendations. Before starting the experiment, soil and roots were collected to quantify the initial population of <em>M. exigua</em> present in the area. At 45 days, soil and root samples were taken from 0 cm to 30 cm deep in the rhizosphere region, totaling 1 kg of soil and 200 g of roots for each sample. These were identified and packed in plastic bags for processing, extraction and quantification of juvenile <em>M. exigua</em>. The extraction of nematodes from the soil was carried out according to the method of Jenkins (1964) and from the roots by the technique of Hussey and Barker (1973), as modified by Bonetti and Ferraz (1981). To meet the ANOVA assumptions, the data were transformed to x-1 and analyzed using the R statistical software. The means of the data were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability (R Development Core Team, 2009). All treatments reduced the number of <em>M. exigua</em> in the root system and the soil. The isolated application of Nimitz, Vitaflex, and Maxfert caused a greater reduction of the nematode population in the roots, while the isolated application of Maxfert and the combination between Vitaflex + Maxfert promoted greater reduction of the nematodes in the soil The combination between Vitaflex + Nimitz and Maxfert + Nimitz also presented satisfactory results in comparison with the control, indicating the good potential of the combined use nematicides and biofertilizers for the management <em>M. exigua</em>. We conclude that both the isolated and associated use of chemical and biological nematicides proved to be efficient in reducing the population of <em>M. exigua</em> in arabica coffee grown in the field. This information strengthens the possibility of managing this pathogen, which in some cases has been causing large damages to this crop.</p> Íris Petronilia Dutra, Adriane Baudson do Nascimento, Milena Barbosa Parreira da Silva, Rayla Vieira Frangilo, Caio Portes Deorce Pimenta, Fábio Ramos Alves ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1914 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Management of Meloidogyne Exigua in Arabica Coffee With Biofertilizers, Chemical and Biological Products http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1915 <p>The objective of this work was to verify the effect of two biofertilizers, two biopesticides and a chemical nematicide in reducing the population of <em>Meloidogyne exigua</em> in arabica coffee, and consequently increase the productivity of the coffee plants. The following treatments were used: T1 - Vitaflex (10 L/ha in Dec/2018 + 10 L/ha in Dec/2019); T2 - Vitaflex (10 L/ha in Dec/2018 + 10 L/ha in Feb/2019) + Vitaflex&nbsp; (10 L/ha in Dec/2019 + 10 L/ha in Feb/2020); T3 - Vitaflex (10 L/ha in Dec/2018) + Maxfert&nbsp; (20 L/ha in Dec/2019); T4 – Quartzo (300 g/ha in Dec/2018 + 300 g/ha in Dec/2019); T5 – Trichodermil 1,5 L/ha in Dec/2018 + 1,5 L /ha in Dec/2019); T6 – Nimitz (1,5 L/ha in Dec/2018 + 1,5 L/ha in Dec/2019); T7 - Nimitz (1,5 L/ha&nbsp; in Dec/2018 + 1,5 L/ha&nbsp; in Feb/2019) + Vitaflex (10 L/ha in Dec/2019 + 10 L/ha in Feb/2020); and T8 – Control. The experiment was carried out in a field of <em>Coffea arabica</em> cv. Catuaí with naturally occurring <em>M. exigua</em> in a randomized block design in an 8 x 6 factorial scheme (8 treatments x 6 collection periods) with four replications for a total of 192 plots, each one consisting of eight plants, with analysis of the six center plants. Before applying the treatments, soil and roots were collected to quantify the initial population (Pi) of <em>M. exigua</em> (evaluation at time zero). The other collections were carried out at 120, 180, 240, 360 and 420 days after application of the products (DAA). To perform the statistical analysis, the software RStudio version 3.5.1 and the statistical package 'ExpDes.pt', version 1.2.0 were used. The data were submitted to ANAVA and the variables that did not meet the statistical assumptions for the analysis were transformed to ln (x) in order to homogenize the variances of the treatments. To compare the means between treatments and collection periods, the Scott-Knott test was used at 5% probability. For the number of nematodes in the roots, the treatments that most reduced the population of <em>M. exigua</em> were T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7. As for the reduction of the number of <em>M. exigua</em> in the soil, T6 was most effective, although all treatments&nbsp; reduced the population. The highest yields in 2019 were observed in plants treated with T1 (53 sc/ha) and T5 (52.75 sc/ha), while in 2020 it was in plants that received T2 (54.5 sc/ha), T6 (58 .25 sc/ha) and T7 (62.12 sc/ha). In 2019, except for T6, all treatments resulted in increased productivity. In 2020, the treatments that brought the most profit to the coffee grower were T6 and T7.</p> Íris Petronilia Dutra, Milena Barbosa Parreira da Silva, Adriane Baldson do Nascimento, Gabrielle Ferreira da Silva, Dimmy Herllen Silveira Gomes Barbosa, Fábio Ramos Alves ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1915 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Morphoagronomic Develoment of Tomato Seedlings in Organic Substrate http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1916 <p>The concern with the waste generated by economic activities has been mobilizing several segments in relation to its disposal and the environmental impacts generated. In this context, the use of some agricultural residues is an alternative that aims to generate profit and reduce costs for producers, in addition to reducing the impacts generated on the environment through conservationist agricultural practices, generating better quality of life. The present work evaluated the morphoagronomic development of tomato seedlings (cultivar Coração de Boi) as a function of the substrate, formed by chicken manure and corn husks with 6 months of curing, from the agroecology sector of the Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, and the commercial substrate Maxfertil®. The soil was classified as Latosol and the treatments were: 100% soil (T1), 50% chicken manure + corn husk and 50% soil (T2), 100% chicken manure and corn husk (T3) and 100% Maxfertil® substrate (T4). Sowing was done in a Styrofoam tray with 200 cells. At 25 days after sowing, the morphological traits were evaluated in 8 central seedlings collected per treatment:: number of leaves, plant height, length of the largest root, length of the aerial part, diameter of the stem and fresh shoot and root mass, shoot and root dry mass. The Dickson Quality Index (DIQ) ranged from 5.37 to 26.87. The data obtained were organized by Excel 2017. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to form possible groups of similar treatments for each variable. We found that chicken manure and corn husk, when pure or mixed with the soil, can be considered efficient and cheap alternatives for the production of tomato seedlings.</p> Íris Petronilia Dutra, Willes Marques Farias, Milena Barbosa Parreira da Silva, Júlio Cesar Machado Baptestini ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1916 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Physiological Assessments in Seedlings of Coffea Conephora Inoculated With Growth Promoting Fungi http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1917 <p>Brazil is one of the main countries in the agricultural sector, which plays an important role in economic performance. In particular, it is one of the largest coffee producers in the world. The state of Espírito Santo is a reference in the production and development of conilon coffee, accounting for about 70% of the national output. The cultivation of this coffee type is one of the main sources of income of farmers in Espírito Santo. Based on the importance of new technologies, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of fungi of the species <em>T. harzianum</em> (CEPA T22) and <em>T. harzianum</em> CEPA ESALQ (1306) and a mix of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the physiology of conilon coffee seedlings. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized block design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with factor A being the use of autoclaved and non-autoclaved substrate and factor B the the addition or not of different fungal isolates. The seedlings were arranged in the nursery with automatic sprinkler irrigation for 120 days. At the end of the experiment, eight treatments were evaluated, with 20 replications, totaling 160 plots and 640 plants. The variables Nitrogen Balance (NBI-G and NBI-R), Total Chlorophyll (SFR-G and SFRR), Anthocyanin (ANT-RG and ANT-RB) and Flavonoids (FLAV) were determined with the use of a Multiplex® fluorometer, while chlorophyll content was measured with a SPAD-502 meter. The collected data were submitted to analysis of variance and then the Scott-Knott clustering test and Dunnett’s mean test, both at 5% probability. For the variables evaluated (SFR-G and SFR-R), Flavonoids (FLAV), Anthocyanin (ANTH-RG and ANTH-RB), and Nitrogen Balance (NBI-G and NBI-R), no significant differences were found according to the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. In relation to the evaluations performed with the SPAD-502 meter, T8 presented the lowest mean in relation to the other treatments and differed statistically from T1 according to Dunnett's test at 5% probability. We concluded that among the physiological evaluations performed with multiplex, no significant differences were found between treatments. However, the treatment containing autoclaved substrate + Mix of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (T8) presented better results of the SPAD-502 index.</p> Simone Wellita Simão de Carvalho, Thárssyla Simão de Carvalho Souza, Natália Cassa, Israel Felipe Gonçalves Soares, Felipe Cruz Paula, Julio Cesar Vetorazzi, Ana Paula Candido Gabriel Berilli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1917 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Land Use and Coverage in the Rio Alegre Basin, Alegre, Es http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1918 <p>The mapping of land use and cover makes it possible to quantify the forms of occupation and geographic organization, information of great relevance for the sustainable management of natural resources. In this work, we mapped the use and land cover of the Rio Alegre watershed, located in the municipality of Alegre, southern Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The work was carried out with the aid of a Geographic Information System computer program (QGIS), taking as cartographic basis the orthophotos of the region, with spatial resolution of 25 cm, referring to the period 2012-2015;&nbsp; and the Ottobacias Level 6 ES and Municipalities ES vector files. The technique used in the mapping was on-screen photointerpretation, with scale of 1:2,000. We &nbsp;found that the watershed has an area of 20,521 hectares and that its landscape is represented by 14 different land use and land cover classes: Urban afforestation; Isolated trees; Coffee plantations; Rural structures; Urban structures; Eucalyptus plantations; Unpaved roads; Paved roads; Forest fragments; Water reservoirs; Rocky material; Pasture; Watercourses; and Exposed soil. Pasture is the predominant class (78.15%). The Coffee plantation class is in second place (7.57%), followed by Isolated trees (2.98%). The Forest fragment class represents only 2.18% of the basin area, a very low value, which reveals a worrying situation from an environmental point of view. The basin has a high degree of forest fragmentation and forest restoration actions are urgently needed.</p> Beatriz Rodrigues Nicácio, Viviane Moitim Pereira, Daiane Rangel Angelete, Jéferson Luiz Ferrari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1918 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Land Use And Occupation In the Citriculture Sector of the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo – Alegre Campus, Brazil http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1919 <p>The conservation of water and soil is based on actions aimed at the responsible and sustainable use of natural resources. It is imperative to know the land use and occupation and to adopt conservationist practices to reduce the negative environmental impacts of anthropic actions. The objective of this work was to describe the land use and occupation in the Citriculture Sector of the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo – Alegre Campus. Initially, field work was carried out to identify the geographic features, relief, &nbsp;crop management, signs of water erosion and conservation practices adopted in the Sector. Then, in the institution's Geoprocessing Laboratory, the study area was delimited and the area of each geographic feature was quantified, resulting in the elaboration of the Sector Land Use and Occupancy Map. The elaboration of the map was followed by the use of the QGIS software, configured for the Coordinate Reference System SIRGAS 2000 - UTM Zone 24S. The on-screen photointerpretation technique was used, at a scale of 1:500, using the local Google Satellite image, referring to the month of March 2021. The study resulted in the identification of six land use classes: orchard; lake; road; trees; construction; and an open field area. We found that the area of the Sector is 34,285.23 m<sup>2</sup> and that the features have the following areas: orchard (22,210.7 m<sup>2</sup>), lake (910.33 m<sup>2</sup>), road (5,474.5 m<sup>2</sup>), trees (3,831.35 m<sup>2</sup>), construction (18.47 m<sup>2</sup>), and open field (604.68 m<sup>2</sup>). There are some noteworthy conservationist practices in the Sector, such as contour planting, terracing, maintenance of the native plant cover and the presence of some areas for cultivation of unconventional food plants, which is positive from a conservation point of view. However, on the roads, the presence of ruts caused by the action of water erosion was identified, especially on steeper roads. Thus, it is recommended to implement more soil and water conservation techniques in the referred agro-ecosystem, such as the construction of dry boxes, reservoirs built on the side of roads that make it possible to retain rainwater and solid sediments transported by surface runoff. Such action would better conserve the roads, minimize soil losses and, consequently, promote greater water infiltration, resulting in a better environmental quality.</p> Aline Besteti Salucci, Barbara da Silva Rodrigues, Lorena Lacerda de Oliveira, Jéferson Luiz Ferrari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1919 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200 Use of Fixed Oil From Soursop Agroindustrial Waste to Produce Eco-Friendly Soap http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1920 <p>Annona muricata L. (soursop) is a tropical fruit from Central America that can also be found in Brazil, Africa and Asia. When the fruits are processed, seeds are inevitably mixed in with the pulp fiber, and need to be separated as a byproduct, traditionally considered waste. Although this byproduct has significant quantities of fatty acids, fibrous matter and other compounds with functional properties, it is mostly discarded in landfills or dumps, without compliance with environmental regulations. So, this study describes the use of soursop seeds to make eco-friendly soap. In this context, the potential of the fixed oil extracted from the seeds was evaluated, to understand how it can be useful in pharmaceutical formulations. The oil was extracted by extrusion and the soap was made with 85% synthetic base, 1.5% soursop oil, 12% glycerin, 0.1% BHT, 0.12% methylparaben, 0.1% propylparaben and sufficient quantities of essences and coloring. Other parameters were investigated, such as increasing the oil concentration and decreasing the synthetic base, using respectively 3% and 6% oil concentration. The prototypes already have shown favorable preliminary physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Soap samples were placed in a water bath until the synthetic base melted at 60 °C. After that, the temperature was decreased to 40 °C and the base was mixed with the other ingredients smoothly. The soap’s pH varied from 9.2 to 9.8, meaning it has good cleaning quality. The foam height was measured by shaking 1 g of the soap in 10 ml of water in a beaker for 1 minute, with the results being measured after the soap-water solution was left at rest for 15 minutes. The foam volume varied from 17 ml to 28 ml on average. The acidity index was measured using NaOH. First the soap was placed in a water bath until it melted, after which an alcohol-ether solution was added. The acidity index ranged from 1.3 KOH/g to 4.95 KOH/g. The melting point was measured also, and varied from 84 °C to 89 °C. The data were submitted to the F-test (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test (p&lt;0.05), showing that the averages did not vary significantly from each other. Our preliminary studies have shown that the synthetic base can be substituted by the soursop oil without affecting the functionalities. Therefore, systematic investigation needs to be carried out to discover new functionalities, given that soursop oil has many attractive features to produce sustainable products. Besides this, our results help the scientific community by providing new knowledge about the ecological appeal that is so necessary nowadays, to encourage the development of technologies that are friendly to the environment. Consumers’ demand for eco-friendly products is growing, requiring efforts for replacement of synthetic bases and glycerin with the seed oil for making soap, mainly because the oil has cleaning and hydrating functionalities.</p> Dyllan Rodrigues Rocha, Jaqueline Rodrigues Cindra de Lima Souza, Tércio da Silva Souza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://iz.agricultura.sp.gov.br/bia/index.php/bia/article/view/1920 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0200